97,675 research outputs found

    Vapor Phase Growth of Air-Stable Hybrid Perovskite FAPbBr<sub>3</sub> Single-Crystalline Nanosheets

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    Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted tremendous attention owing to their fascinating optoelectronic properties. However, their poor air stability seriously hinders practical applications, which becomes more serious with thickness down to the nanoscale. Here we report a one-step vapor phase growth of HC(NH2)2PbBr3 (FAPbBr3) single-crystalline nanosheets of tunable size up to 50 μm and thickness down to 20 nm. The FAPbBr3 nanosheets demonstrate high stability for over months of exposure to air with no degradation in surface roughness and photoluminescence efficiency. Besides, the FAPbBr3 photodetectors exhibit superior overall performance as compared to previous devices based on nonlayered perovskite nanosheets, such as an ultralow dark current of 24 pA, an ultrahigh responsivity of 1033 A/W, an external quantum efficiency over 3000%, a rapid response time around 25 ms, and a high on/off ratio of 104. This work provides a strategy to tackle the challenges of hybrid perovskites toward integrated optoelectronics with requirements of nanoscale thickness, high stability, and excellent performance

    Oral anti-coagulants use in Chinese hospitalized patients with atrial fibrillation.

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    BackgroundOral anti-coagulants (OAC) are the intervention for the prevention of stroke, which consistently improve clinical outcomes and survival among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The main purpose of this study is to identify problems in OAC utilization among hospitalized patients with AF in China.MethodsUsing data from the Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China-Atrial Fibrillation (CCC-AF) registry, guideline-recommended OAC use in eligible patients was assessed.ResultsA total of 52,530 patients with non-valvular AF were enrolled from February 2015 to December 2019, of whom 38,203 were at a high risk of stroke, 9717 were at a moderate risk, and 4610 were at a low risk. On admission, only 20.0% (6075/30,420) of patients with a diagnosed AF and a high risk of stroke were taking OAC. The use of pre-hospital OAC on admission was associated with a lower risk of new-onset ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack among the diagnosed AF population (adjusted odds ratio: 0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.68; P  ConclusionsIn hospitals participated in the CCC-AF project, >70% of AF patients were at a high risk of stroke. Although poor performance on guideline-recommended OAC use was found in this study, over time the CCC-AF project has made progress in stroke prevention in the Chinese AF population.Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02309398

    Data_Sheet_1_A general dual-pathway network for EEG denoising.docx

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    IntroductionScalp electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis and interpretation are crucial for tracking and analyzing brain activity. The collected scalp EEG signals, however, are weak and frequently tainted with various sorts of artifacts. The models based on deep learning provide comparable performance with that of traditional techniques. However, current deep learning networks applied to scalp EEG noise reduction are large in scale and suffer from overfitting.MethodsHere, we propose a dual-pathway autoencoder modeling framework named DPAE for scalp EEG signal denoising and demonstrate the superiority of the model on multi-layer perceptron (MLP), convolutional neural network (CNN) and recurrent neural network (RNN), respectively. We validate the denoising performance on benchmark scalp EEG artifact datasets.ResultsThe experimental results show that our model architecture not only significantly reduces the computational effort but also outperforms existing deep learning denoising algorithms in root relative mean square error (RRMSE)metrics, both in the time and frequency domains.DiscussionThe DPAE architecture does not require a priori knowledge of the noise distribution nor is it limited by the network layer structure, which is a general network model oriented toward blind source separation.</p

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents from 48 countries: a cross-sectional study

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    Background: Approximately 450 000 children are born with familial hypercholesterolaemia worldwide every year, yet only 2·1% of adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia were diagnosed before age 18 years via current diagnostic approaches, which are derived from observations in adults. We aimed to characterise children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH) and understand current approaches to the identification and management of familial hypercholesterolaemia to inform future public health strategies. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we assessed children and adolescents younger than 18 years with a clinical or genetic diagnosis of HeFH at the time of entry into the Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Studies Collaboration (FHSC) registry between Oct 1, 2015, and Jan 31, 2021. Data in the registry were collected from 55 regional or national registries in 48 countries. Diagnoses relying on self-reported history of familial hypercholesterolaemia and suspected secondary hypercholesterolaemia were excluded from the registry; people with untreated LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) of at least 13·0 mmol/L were excluded from this study. Data were assessed overall and by WHO region, World Bank country income status, age, diagnostic criteria, and index-case status. The main outcome of this study was to assess current identification and management of children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Findings: Of 63 093 individuals in the FHSC registry, 11 848 (18·8%) were children or adolescents younger than 18 years with HeFH and were included in this study; 5756 (50·2%) of 11 476 included individuals were female and 5720 (49·8%) were male. Sex data were missing for 372 (3·1%) of 11 848 individuals. Median age at registry entry was 9·6 years (IQR 5·8-13·2). 10 099 (89·9%) of 11 235 included individuals had a final genetically confirmed diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia and 1136 (10·1%) had a clinical diagnosis. Genetically confirmed diagnosis data or clinical diagnosis data were missing for 613 (5·2%) of 11 848 individuals. Genetic diagnosis was more common in children and adolescents from high-income countries (9427 [92·4%] of 10 202) than in children and adolescents from non-high-income countries (199 [48·0%] of 415). 3414 (31·6%) of 10 804 children or adolescents were index cases. Familial-hypercholesterolaemia-related physical signs, cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular disease were uncommon, but were more common in non-high-income countries. 7557 (72·4%) of 10 428 included children or adolescents were not taking lipid-lowering medication (LLM) and had a median LDL-C of 5·00 mmol/L (IQR 4·05-6·08). Compared with genetic diagnosis, the use of unadapted clinical criteria intended for use in adults and reliant on more extreme phenotypes could result in 50-75% of children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia not being identified. Interpretation: Clinical characteristics observed in adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia are uncommon in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia, hence detection in this age group relies on measurement of LDL-C and genetic confirmation. Where genetic testing is unavailable, increased availability and use of LDL-C measurements in the first few years of life could help reduce the current gap between prevalence and detection, enabling increased use of combination LLM to reach recommended LDL-C targets early in life

    Image_4_Efficacy of MUC1-targeted CAR-NK cells against human tongue squamous cell carcinoma.jpg

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    IntroductionThe clinical efficacy of CAR-NK cells against CD19-expressing blood cancers has been demonstrated, and they have shown potential for treating solid tumors as well. However, the efficacy of CAR-NK cells for treating human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) has not been examined. MethodsWe assessed MUC1 expression in human OTSCC tissue and a cell line using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. We constructed NK cells that express CAR targeted to MUC1 from pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-derived MUC1-targeted CAR-NK cells) and evaluated their effectiveness against OTSCC in vitro using the xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analysis system and CCK8 assay, and in vivo by measuring xenograft growth daily in BNDG mice treated with MUC1-targeted CAR-NK cells. As controls, we used iPSC-derived NK cells and NK-free media, which were CAR-free and blank, respectively.ResultsMUC1 expression was detected in 79.5% (66/83) of all OTSCC patients and 72.7% (24/33) of stage III and IV. In stage III and IV MUC1 positive OTSCC, 63.6% (21/33) and 48.5% (16/33) patients had a MUC1-positive cancer cell rate of more than 50% and 80%, respectively. The iPSC-derived MUC1-targeted CAR-NK cells exhibited significant cytotoxicity against MUC1-expressing OTSCC cells in vitro, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and showed a significant inhibitory effect on xenograft growth compared to both the iPSC-derived NK cells and the blank controls. We observed no weight loss, severe hematological toxicity or NK cell-mediated death in the BNDG mice. ConclusionThe MUC1-targeted CAR-NK cells had significant efficacy against human OTSCC, and their promising therapeutic response warrants further clinical trials.</p

    Image_5_Efficacy of MUC1-targeted CAR-NK cells against human tongue squamous cell carcinoma.jpg

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    IntroductionThe clinical efficacy of CAR-NK cells against CD19-expressing blood cancers has been demonstrated, and they have shown potential for treating solid tumors as well. However, the efficacy of CAR-NK cells for treating human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) has not been examined. MethodsWe assessed MUC1 expression in human OTSCC tissue and a cell line using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. We constructed NK cells that express CAR targeted to MUC1 from pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-derived MUC1-targeted CAR-NK cells) and evaluated their effectiveness against OTSCC in vitro using the xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analysis system and CCK8 assay, and in vivo by measuring xenograft growth daily in BNDG mice treated with MUC1-targeted CAR-NK cells. As controls, we used iPSC-derived NK cells and NK-free media, which were CAR-free and blank, respectively.ResultsMUC1 expression was detected in 79.5% (66/83) of all OTSCC patients and 72.7% (24/33) of stage III and IV. In stage III and IV MUC1 positive OTSCC, 63.6% (21/33) and 48.5% (16/33) patients had a MUC1-positive cancer cell rate of more than 50% and 80%, respectively. The iPSC-derived MUC1-targeted CAR-NK cells exhibited significant cytotoxicity against MUC1-expressing OTSCC cells in vitro, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and showed a significant inhibitory effect on xenograft growth compared to both the iPSC-derived NK cells and the blank controls. We observed no weight loss, severe hematological toxicity or NK cell-mediated death in the BNDG mice. ConclusionThe MUC1-targeted CAR-NK cells had significant efficacy against human OTSCC, and their promising therapeutic response warrants further clinical trials.</p

    Search for vector-boson resonances decaying into a top quark and a bottom quark using pp collisions at s = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector