287 research outputs found

    A direct algorithm for estimating land surface broadband albedos from MODIS imagery

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    Retrieving leaf area index with a neural network method: simulation and validation

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    A Direct Algorithm for Estimating Land Surface Broadband Albedos From MODIS Imagery

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    Land surface albedo is a critical variable needed in land surface modeling. The conventional methods for estimating broadband albedos rely on a series of steps in the processing chain, including atmospheric correction, surface angular modeling, and narrowband-to-broadband albedo conversions. Unfortunately, errors associated with each procedure may be accumulated and significantly impact the accuracy of the final albedo products. In an earlier study, we developed a new direct procedure that links the top-of-atmosphere spectral albedos with land surface broadband albedos without performing atmospheric correction and other processes. In this paper, this method is further improved in several aspects and implemented using actual Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery. Several case studies indicated that this new method can predict land surface broadband albedos very accurately and eliminate aerosol effects effectively. It is very promising for global applications and is particularly suitable for nonvegetated land surfaces. Note that a Lambertian surface has been assumed in the radiative transfer simulation in this paper as a first-order approximation; this assumption can be easily removed as long as a global bidirectional reflectance distribution function climatology is available,This work was supported in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Grant NAG5-6459

    An Optimization Algorithm for Separating Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity from Multispectral Thermal Infrared Imagery

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    Land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity are important components of land surface modeling and applications. The only practical means of obtaining LST at spatial and temporal resolutions appropriate for most modeling applications is through remote sensing. While the popular split-window method has been widely used to estimate LST, it requires known emissivity values. Multispectral thermal infrared imagery provides us with an excellent opportunity to estimate both LST and emissivity simultaneously, but the difficulty is that a single multispectral thermal measurement with bands presents equations in + 1 unknowns ( spectral emissivities and LST). In this study, we developed a general algorithm that can separate land surface emissivity and LST from any multispectral thermal imagery, such as moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER). The central idea was to establish empirical constraints, and regularization methods were used to estimate both emissivity and LST through an optimization algorithm. It allows us to incorporate any prior knowledge in a formal way. The numerical experiments showed that this algorithm is very effective (more than 43.4% inversion results differed from the actual LST within 0.5 , 70.2% within 1 and 84% within 1.5 ), although improvements are still needed

    An Improved Atmospheric Correction Algorithm for Hyperspectral Remotely Sensed Imagery

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    There is an increased trend toward quantitative estimation of land surface variables from hyperspectral remote sensing. One challenging issue is retrieving surface reflectance spectra from observed radiance through atmospheric correction, most methods for which are intended to correct water vapor and other absorbing gases. In this letter, methods for correcting both aerosols and water vapor are explored. We first apply the cluster matching technique developed earlier for Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery to Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, then improve its aerosol estimation and incorporate a new method for estimating column water vapor content using the neural network technique. The improved algorithm is then used to correct Hyperion imagery. Case studies using AVIRIS and Hyperion images demonstrate that both the original and improved methods are very effective to remove heterogeneous atmospheric effects and recover surface reflectance spectra.This work was supported in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under EO1 Grant NCC5462

    Retrieving Leaf Area Index With a Neural Network Method: Simulation and Validation

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    Leaf area index () is a crucial biophysical parameter that is indispensable for many biophysical and climatic models. A neural network algorithm in conjunction with extensive canopy and atmospheric radiative transfer simulations is presented in this paper to estimateLAIfromLandsat-7 Enhanced ThematicMapper Plus data. Two schemes were explored; the first was based on surface reflectance, and the second on top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance. The implication of the second scheme is that atmospheric corrections are not needed for estimating the surface LAI. A soil reflectance index (SRI) was proposed to account for variable soil background reflectances. Ground-measured LAI data acquired at Beltsville, MD were used to validate both schemes. The results indicate that both methods can be used to estimate LAI accurately. The experiments also showed that the use of SRI is very critical.This work was supported in part by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Grant NAG5-6459 and Grant NCC5462

    Evaluation of five satellite top-of-atmosphere albedo products over land

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    Five satellite top-of-atmosphere (TOA) albedo products over land were evaluated in this study including global products from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) (TAL-AVHRR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (TAL-MODIS), and Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES); one regional product from the Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility (CM SAF); and one harmonized product termed Diagnosing Earth’s Energy Pathways in the Climate system (DEEP-C). Results showed that overall, there is good consistency among these five products, particularly after the year 2000. The differences among these products in the high-latitude regions were relatively larger. The percentage differences among TAL-AVHRR, TAL-MODIS, and CERES were generally less than 20%, while the differences between TAL-AVHRR and DEEP-C before 2000 were much larger. Except for the obvious decrease in the differences after 2000, the differences did not show significant changes over time, but varied among different regions. The differences between TAL-AVHRR and the other products were relatively large in the high-latitude regions of North America, Asia, and the Maritime Continent, while the differences between DEEP-C and CM SAF in Europe and Africa were smaller. Interannual variability was consistent between products after 2000, before which the differences among the three products were much larger

    Atmospheric Correction of Landsat ETM+ Land Surface Imagery—Part I: Methods

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    To extract quantitative information from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus (ETM+) imagery accurately, atmospheric correction is a necessary step. After reviewing historical development of atmospheric correction of Landsat thematic mapper (TM) imagery, we present a new algorithm that can effectively estimate the spatial distribution of atmospheric aerosols and retrieve surface reflectance from ETM+ imagery under general atmospheric and surface conditions. This algorithm is therefore suitable for operational applications. A new formula that accounts for adjacency effects is also presented. Several examples are given to demonstrate that this new algorithm works very well under a variety of atmospheric and surface conditions. The companion paper will validate this method using ground measurements, and illustrate the improvements of several applications due to atmospheric correction.This work was supported in part by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Washington, DC, under Grant NAG5-6459

    Spatio-Temporal Patterns and Climate Variables Controlling of Biomass Carbon Stock of Global Grassland Ecosystems from 1982 to 2006

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    Grassland ecosystems play an important role in subsistence agriculture and the global carbon cycle. However, the global spatio-temporal patterns and environmental controls of grassland biomass are not well quantified and understood. The goal of this study was to estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of the global grassland biomass and analyze their driving forces using field measurements, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series from satellite data, climate reanalysis data, and a satellite-based statistical model. Results showed that the NDVI-based biomass carbon model developed from this study explained 60% of the variance across 38 sites globally. The global carbon stock in grassland aboveground live biomass was 1.05 Pg·C, averaged from 1982 to 2006, and increased at a rate of 2.43 Tg·C·y−1 during this period. Temporal change of the global biomass was significantly and positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. The distribution of biomass carbon density followed the precipitation gradient. The dynamics of regional grassland biomass showed various trends largely determined by regional climate variability, disturbances, and management practices (such as grazing for meat production). The methods and results from this study can be used to monitor the dynamics of grassland aboveground biomass and evaluate grassland susceptibility to climate variability and change, disturbances, and management
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