294,701 research outputs found

    Performance of the local reconstruction algorithms for the CMS hadron calorimeter with Run 2 data

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    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared

    Research Progress in Metal Ion Chelated Peptides of Marine Sources

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    Marine peptides are one of the important sources of biological peptides. Marine peptides have many types and are easy to be modified by metal ions. Marine peptides have natural advantages in the preparation of metal ion chelated peptides, and are expected to become a research hotspot of metal ion chelated peptides in the future. In this paper, the chelating mechanism of metal ion chelated peptides from ocean is reviewed. Single dentate chelating mode, double dentate chelating mode and α chelating mode, three chelating modes are described. At the same time, the effects of peptide size, amino acid type and position, some special residues on the chelation effect are summarized. The preparation and purification methods of metal chelate peptides from ocean are listed. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods are analyzed. In addition, the biological activities of metal ion chelated peptides such as promoting metal ion absorption, bacteriostatic and antioxidant are summarized. This paper can provide technical support for the preparation, functional activity analysis and chelating mechanism study of metal ion chelated peptides in the future

    Synthesis and Application of Lipase Immobilized on Mussel-inspired Polymer Microspheres

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    In order to construct a new type of immobilized enzyme catalytic system, poly (glycidyl methacrylate) was used as a support, and was modified with dopamine/polyethyleneimine by the mussel-inspired co-deposition method. The resulted material was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy spectroscopy (EDS), Zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), respectively. Then, the resulted material was applied for the immobilization of lipase, which was fermented via Candida parapsilosis CICC 33470. The characterization and enzymatic properties of immobilized enzyme were also investigated. The optimal immobilized conditions were the immobilization temperature of 30 ℃, the immobilization pH of 7.0, the immobilization time of 5 h and the immobilization initial enzyme acticity of 337.76 U/mL, together with the carrier addition of 0.2 g. It was indicated that the maximum enzyme activity reached 484.42±5.97 U/g-support, as the optimal reaction temperature, reaction pH and reaction time were 50 ℃, 8.0 and 10 min, respectively. In addition, the immobilized lipase exhibited excellent stability, and it kept 39.22% of original enzyme activity after eight reuse cycles. Furthermore, when the immobilized lipase was used to catalyze the esterification reaction of levulinic acid and lauryl alcohol, the conversion rate could reach 75.94%. It was illuminated that the modified poly (glycidyl methacrylate) could serve as a good support for lipase immobilization, and the results provided basic data for expanding the application areas of lipase in the future

    Differential Nitrous oxide emission and microbiota succession in constructed wetlands induced by nitrogen forms

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    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during the sewage treatment process is a serious environmental issue that requires attention. However, the N2O emission in constructed wetlands (CWs) as affected by different nitrogen forms in influents remain largely unknown. This study investigated the N2O emission profiles driven by microorganisms in CWs when exposed to two typical nitrogen sources (NH4+-N or NO3–-N) along with different carbon source supply (COD/N ratios: 3, 6, and 9). The results showed that CWs receiving NO3–-N caused a slight increase in total nitrogen removal (by up to 11.8 %). This increase was accomplished by an enrichment of key bacteria groups, including denitrifiers, dissimilatory nitrate reducers, and assimilatory nitrate reducers, which enhanced the stability of microbial interaction. Additionally, it led to a greater abundance of denitrification genes (e.g., nirK, norB, norC, and nosZ) as inferred from the database. Consequently, this led to a gradual increase in N2O emission from 66.51 to 486.77 ug-N/(m2·h) as the COD/N ratio increased in CWs. Conversely, in CWs receiving NH4+-N, an increasing influent COD/N ratio had a negative impact on nitrogen biotransformation. This resulted in fluctuating trend of N2O emissions, which decreased initially, followed by an increase at later stage (with values of 122.87, 44.00, and 148.59 ug-N/(m2·h)). Furthermore, NH4+-N in the aquatic improved the nitrogen uptake by plants and promoted the production of more root exudates. As a result, it adjusted the nitrogen-transforming function, ultimately reducing N2O emissions in CWs. This study highlights the divergence in microbiota succession and nitrogen transformation in CWs induced by nitrogen form and COD/N ratio, contributing to a better understanding of the microbial mechanisms of N2O emission in CWs with NH4+-N or NO3–-N at different COD/N ratios

    Data_Sheet_1_Drug resistance patterns and genotype associations of Trichomonas gallinae in meat pigeons (Columba livia): insights from Guangdong Province, China.DOCX

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    Avian trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, is a prevalent and economically significant disease in pigeons. This study investigated the drug resistance of T. gallinae isolates in Guangdong Province, China. The results revealed that 25.3% (20/79) of the isolates were resistant to one or more of the four nitroimidazole drugs tested, namely, metronidazole, dimetridazole, secnidazole, and tinidazole. Secnidazole elicited the highest resistance rate (19.0%; 15/79), followed by tinidazole (17.7%; 14/79), metronidazole (17.7%; 14/79), and dimetridazole (13.9%; 11/79). An enormous majority of the resistant isolates (70.0%; 14/20) exhibited resistance to multiple drugs. Additionally, the resistance rate was significantly higher in isolates from birds aged < 30 days (53.3%; 8/15) than in those from older birds (23.1%; 12/52). Moreover, no drug resistance was detected in female pigeons. The genotype of the isolated strain was also associated with drug resistance. Specifically, 50.0% (15/30) of ITS-B genotypes exhibited resistance to drugs, while only 10.2% (5/49) of ITS-A genotypes demonstrated resistance. This study also found the growth characteristics of different Trichomonas isolates to be influenced by their genotypes and initial inoculum concentrations. These findings underscore the urgent need for effective measures to control and prevent drug-resistant T. gallinae infections in pigeons, thus ensuring the stable development of the pigeon industry.</p

    Table1_Comparative transcriptomic insights into the domestication of Pleurotus abieticola for coniferous cultivation.XLSX

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    Introduction:Pleurotus abieticola, a promising edible fungus in the Pleurotaceae family, especially its ability to utilize coniferous substrate, holds significant potential for commercial cultivation. However, few reports on the adaptation of P. abieticola to coniferous substrate from the perspective of omics.Methods: This study explores the biological characteristics, domestication process, and nutritional composition of P. abieticola, along with its adaptability to coniferous substrates using transcriptomics. We assessed biological characteristics, optimizing mycelial growth on agar medium with varied carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, and pH. Additionally, the optimization process extended to fruiting bodies, where impact on the differentiation were evaluated under varying light conditions. Fruiting body nutrient composition was analyzed per the Chinese National Food Safety Standard. Transcriptome sequencing focused on P. abieticola mycelial colonized coniferous and broadleaved substrates.Results and Discussion: The optimal conditions for mycelial growth were identified: dextrin (carbon source), diammonium hydrogen phosphate (nitrogen source), 25°C (temperature), and pH 7.0. White light promoted fruiting body growth and differentiation. Larch substrate exhibited superior yield (190 g) and biological efficiency (38.0%) compared to oak (131 g, 26.2%) and spruce (166 g, 33.2%). P. abieticola showcased high dietary fiber, protein, and total sugar content, low fat, and sufficient microelements. Transcriptome analysis revealed significant key genes involved in lignocellulose degradation, stress-resistant metabolism, and endocytosis metabolism, underscoring their pivotal for coniferous adaptation. This study offers valuable insights for the commercial development and strain breeding of P. abieticola, efficiently leveraging conifer resources. The findings underscore its potential as a valuable source for food, medicinal products, and biotechnological applications.</p

    Data_Sheet_4_Risk factors for urinary tract infection in geriatric hip fracture patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.docx

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    BackgroundUrinary tract infection (UTI) is a prevalent and consequential complication in hip fracture patients, leading to significant disability and heightened healthcare expenditures. Consequently, there is a critical need for a comprehensive systematic review to identify risk factors and establish early and effective preventive measures.MethodsA comprehensive search was performed across the PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus databases (up to August 31, 2023). Article screening, data extraction, and quality assessment were independently completed by two reviewers.ResultsForty-four studies were eligible for inclusion, yielding an overall incidence rate of 11% (95% CI: 8%−14%). Our pooled analysis revealed 18 significant risk factors, including being female (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.89–2.63), advanced age (MD = 1.35, 95% CI: 0.04–2.66), obesity (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.11–1.31), catheterization (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.29–6.32), blood transfusion (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.21–1.58), American Society of Anesthesiologists ≥III (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18–1.40), general anesthesia (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11–1.43), intertrochanteric fracture (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01–1.54), hemiarthroplasty (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.19–1.69), prolonged length of hospital stay (MD = 1.44, 95% CI: 0.66–2.23), delirium (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 2.05–3.47), dementia (OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.62–2.06), Parkinson's disease (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.46–1.61), diabetes (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.13–1.43), hypertension (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03–1.26), congestive heart failure (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.10–1.66), history of sepsis (OR = 7.13, 95% CI: 5.51–9.22), and chronic steroid use (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06–1.57).ConclusionOur study identifies numerous risk factors strongly associated with UTI, offering compelling evidence and actionable strategies for improving clinical prediction, enabling early intervention, and facilitating targeted UTI management.Systematic review registrationidentifier [CRD42023459600], https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?RecordID=459600.</p

    Characterization of Polarized SAR Scattering of Breaking Waves Caused by Internal Solitary Waves

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    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) resonate with meter-scale surface waves, which causes crests to overturn and waves to break strongly, generating many whitecaps. We analyze the polarized SAR characteristics of ISWs based on nonpolarized scattering theory and polarization decomposition theory. The surface breaking waves induced by ISWs generate short-scale waves carrying Bragg waves on the one hand, which enhances the polarized Bragg scattering (PD) contribution at the decimeter or centimeter scale and generate additional nonpolarized scattering (NP) contribution through specular scattering on the other hand. The copolarized scattering intensity in ISW regions is always higher than that in unperturbed sea surface under both L and C bands, with higher PD and NP contributions. The average PD is 1.3 (1.7) times higher than that of the unperturbed sea surface, and the average NP is approximately 82&#x0025; (165&#x0025;) higher than that of the sea surface. The PD and NP values associated with the convergent zones are always larger than those associated with the divergent zones, indicating that breaking waves mainly occur in convergence. The results of HAα\bm{HA}\alpha decomposition show that the scattering mechanism of ISWs is surface scattering with reduced scattering entropy and mean scattering angle. We construct compact polarization based on fully polarized SAR, and extract polarization parameters that indicate increased degree of polarization at ISWs, which supports our inference of enhanced specular scattering

    Oral anti-coagulants use in Chinese hospitalized patients with atrial fibrillation.

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    BackgroundOral anti-coagulants (OAC) are the intervention for the prevention of stroke, which consistently improve clinical outcomes and survival among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The main purpose of this study is to identify problems in OAC utilization among hospitalized patients with AF in China.MethodsUsing data from the Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China-Atrial Fibrillation (CCC-AF) registry, guideline-recommended OAC use in eligible patients was assessed.ResultsA total of 52,530 patients with non-valvular AF were enrolled from February 2015 to December 2019, of whom 38,203 were at a high risk of stroke, 9717 were at a moderate risk, and 4610 were at a low risk. On admission, only 20.0% (6075/30,420) of patients with a diagnosed AF and a high risk of stroke were taking OAC. The use of pre-hospital OAC on admission was associated with a lower risk of new-onset ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack among the diagnosed AF population (adjusted odds ratio: 0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.68; P  ConclusionsIn hospitals participated in the CCC-AF project, >70% of AF patients were at a high risk of stroke. Although poor performance on guideline-recommended OAC use was found in this study, over time the CCC-AF project has made progress in stroke prevention in the Chinese AF population.Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02309398
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