1,819 research outputs found

    Psychological type and religious orientation : do introverts and extraverts go to church for different reasons?

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    This study set out to profile an Anglican congregation in the south of England in terms of religious orientation, assessed by the New Indices of Religious Orientation, and in terms of psychological type, assessed by the Francis Psychological Type Scales, in order to test the hypothesis that motivation for church attendance (religious orientation) is related to personality (psychological type). The data demonstrated that this congregation (N = 65) displayed clear preferences for judging (72%) over perceiving (28%) and for sensing (62%) over intuition (39%), slight preference for extraversion (54%) over introversion (46%) and a fairly close balance between feeling (51%) and thinking (49%), and included attenders who reflected all three religious orientations: intrinsic, extrinsic, and quest. Moreover, extraverts recorded significantly higher scores than introverts on the measure of extrinsic religiosity, while introverts recorded significantly higher scores than extraverts on the measure of intrinsic religiosity, demonstrating a link between psychological type and religious orientation

    How homonegative is the typical Anglican congregation? : applying the Robbins-Murray Religious Homonegative Orientation Scale (RHOS)

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    This paper set out to assess and profile attitudes toward homosexuality within one typical Anglican congregation. The majority of attendees (n=65, 42% men and 58% women) completed the Robbins-Murray Religious Homonegative Orientation Scale (an instrument embracing the following views on homosexuality: theological aspects, normativity, moral judgement, legal proscription, and affective response), together with indices concerned with demographic factors, religious factors and personality factors. Overall, the data demonstrated that the majority of churchgoers did not espouse a negative view of homosexuality. More proscriptive attitudes were associated with being male, with being older, with regular attendance, and with being more conservative. Individual differences in personality, however, were not significant predictors of views on homosexuality

    Collaborative design of assessment criteria to improve undergraduate student engagement and performance

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    Student engagement is vital in enhancing the student experience and encouraging deeper learning. Involving students in the design of assessment criteria is one way in which to increase student engagement. In 2011, a marking matrix was used at Aston University (UK) for logbook assessment (Group One) in a project-based learning module. The next cohort of students in 2012 (Group Two) were asked to collaboratively redesign the matrix and were given a questionnaire about the exercise. Group Two initially scored a lower average logbook mark than Group One. However, Group Two showed the greatest improvement between assessments, and the quality of, and commitment to, logbooks was noticeably improved. Student input resulted in a more defined, tougher mark scheme. However, this provided an improved feedback system that gave more scope for self-improvement. The majority of students found the exercise incorporated their ideas, enhanced their understanding, and was useful in itself

    Deliberate Practice Makes Perfect! Developing Logbook Keeping as a Professional Skill through CDIO

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    Deliberate practice, including focused practice time by students, feedback from experts, mentors, educators or peers, and student reflection[1] is needed in order to develop and excel in any skill. This study looks at whether deliberate and directed practice can be used to develop professional engineering skills in a CDIO teaching setting, using logbook keeping as a key example

    Provider Insight on Surmounting Specialty Practice Challenges to Improve Tdap Immunization Rates among Pregnant Women

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    Background Pertussis, or “whooping cough,” is an acute, contagious pulmonary disease that, despite being vaccine-preventable, has become an increasingly widespread problem in the United States. As a result, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists updated recommendations stating clinicians should give a Tdap dose during every pregnancy, preferably at 27–36 weeks. Despite this recommendation, reported Tdap vaccine receipt rates during pregnancy vary from 16–61%, and previous studies have shown that clinician recommendation and vaccine administration are strongly associated with vaccine uptake among pregnant women. Methods Our aim was to inform new strategies to increase uptake of the Tdap vaccine among pregnant women and, ultimately, reduce pertussis-related morbidityand mortality in infants. We conducted interviewswith a sample of 24 ob-gyns. We subsequently performed grounded theory analyses of transcripts using deductive and inductive coding strategies followed by intercoder reliability assessment. Results All physicians interviewed were familiar with the most recent recommendation of giving the Tdap vaccine during the third trimester of every pregnancy, and the majority of physicians stated that they felt that the vaccine was important and effective due to the transfer of pertussis antibodies from the mother to the fetus. Most physicians indicated that they recommended the vaccine to patients during pregnancy, but not all reported administering it on site because it was not stocked at their practice. Implementation challenges for physicians included insurance reimbursement and other challenges (i.e., patient refusal). Tdap vaccinationduring pregnancy was a lower clinical priority for some physicians. Physicians recognized the benefits associated with Tdap vaccination during pregnancy. Conclusions Findings indicate while most ob-gyns recognize the benefits of Tdap and recommend vaccination during pregnancy, barriers such as insurance reimbursement and financial concerns for the practice can outweigh the perceived benefits. This resulted in some ob-gyns reporting choosing not to stock and administer the vaccine in their practice. Recommendations to address these concerns include 1) structural support for Tdap vaccine administration in ob-gyns practices; 2) Continuing medical education-equivalent educational interventions that address management techniques, vaccine coding, and other relevant information; and 3) interventions to assist physicians in communicating the importance of Tdap vaccination during pregnancy

    Protoplanetary Disks in ρ\rho Ophiuchus as Seen From ALMA

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    We present a high angular resolution (0.2\sim 0.2^{\prime\prime}), high sensitivity (σ0.2\sigma \sim 0.2 mJy) survey of the 870 μ\mum continuum emission from the circumstellar material around 49 pre-main sequence stars in the ρ\rho Ophiuchus molecular cloud. Because most millimeter instruments have resided in the northern hemisphere, this represents the largest high-resolution, millimeter-wave survey of the circumstellar disk content of this cloud. Our survey of 49 systems comprises 63 stars; we detect disks associated with 29 single sources, 11 binaries, 3 triple systems and 4 transition disks. We present flux and radius distributions for these systems; in particular, this is the first presentation of a reasonably complete probability distribution of disk radii at millimeter-wavelengths. We also compare the flux distribution of these protoplanetary disks with that of the disk population of the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. We find that disks in binaries are both significantly smaller and have much less flux than their counterparts around isolated stars. We compute truncation calculations on our binary sources and find that these disks are too small to have been affected by tidal truncation and posit some explanations for this. Lastly, our survey found 3 candidate gapped disks, one of which is a newly identified transition disk with no signature of a dip in infrared excess in extant observations.Comment: 26 pages, 16 figures. Accepted for publication in Ap

    Cell exclusion in couette flow:evaluation through flow visualisation and mechanical forces

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    Cell exclusion is the phenomenon whereby the hematocrit and viscosity of blood decrease in areas of high stress. While this is well known in naturally occurring Poiseuille flow in the human body, it has never previously been shown in Couette flow, which occurs in implantable devices including blood pumps. The high-shear stresses that occur in the gap between the boundaries in Couette flow are known to cause hemolysis in erythrocytes. We propose to mitigate this damage by initiating cell exclusion through the use of a spiral-groove bearing (SGB) that will provide escape routes by which the cells may separate themselves from the plasma and the high stresses in the gap. The force between two bearings (one being the SGB) in Couette flow was measured. Stained erythrocytes, along with silver spheres of similar diameter to erythrocytes, were visualized across a transparent SGB at various gap heights. A reduction in the force across the bearing for human blood, compared with fluids of comparable viscosity, was found. This indicates a reduction in the viscosity of the fluid across the bearing due to a lowered hematocrit because of cell exclusion. The corresponding images clearly show both cells and spheres being excluded from the gap by entering the grooves. This is the first time the phenomenon of cell exclusion has been shown in Couette flow. It not only furthers our understanding of how blood responds to different flows but could also lead to improvements in the future design of medical devices

    The VLA/ALMA Nascent Disk and Multiplicity (VANDAM) Survey of Perseus Protostars. VI. Characterizing the Formation Mechanism for Close Multiple Systems

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    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of multiple protostar systems in the Perseus molecular cloud previously detected by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We observed 17 close (<<600~AU separation) multiple systems at 1.3~mm in continuum and five molecular lines (i.e., \twco, \cateo, \thco, H2_2CO, SO) to characterize the circum-multiple environments in which these systems are forming. We detect at least one component in the continuum for the 17 multiple systems. In three systems, one companion is not detected, and for two systems the companions are unresolved at our observed resolution. We also detect circum-multiple dust emission toward 8 out of 9 Class 0 multiples. Circum-multiple dust emission is not detected toward any of the 8 Class I multiples. Twelve systems are detected in the dense gas tracers toward their disks/inner envelopes. For these 12 systems, we use the dense gas observations to characterize their formation mechanism. The velocity gradients in the circum-multiple gas are clearly orthogonal to the outflow directions in 8 out of the 12 systems, consistent with disk fragmentation. Moreover, only two systems with separations <<200~AU are \textit{inconsistent} with disk fragmentation, in addition to the two widest systems (>>500~AU). Our results suggest that disk fragmentation via gravitational instability is an important formation mechanism for close multiple systems, but further statistics are needed to better determine the relative fraction formed via this method.Comment: 48 Pages, 26 Figures, 7 Tables, Accepted by Ap

    Anaerobiosis influences virulence properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis isolates and the interaction with Staphylococcus aureus

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    The airways of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) are abundantly colonised by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Co-infecting hypoxic regions of static mucus within CF airways, together with decreases in pulmonary function, mucus plugging and oxygen consumption by host neutrophils gives rise to regions of anoxia. This study determined the impact of anaerobiosis upon S. aureus-P. aeruginosa interactions in planktonic co-culture and mixed species biofilms in vitro. Whilst anoxia reduced the ability for P. aeruginosa CF isolates to dominate over S. aureus, this occurred in an isolate dependent manner. Investigations into the underlying mechanisms suggest that the anti-staphylococcal compound facilitating P. aeruginosa dominance under normoxia and anoxia is greater than 3 kDa in size and is heat-stable. Not all interspecies interactions studied were antagonistic, as S. aureus exoproducts were shown to restore and enhance P. aeruginosa motility under normoxia and anoxia in an isolate dependent manner. Collectively, this study suggests changes in oxygen availability within regions of the CF lung is likely to influence interspecies interactions and in turn, potentially influence disease progression