606 research outputs found

    Preparation of Ni–YSZ thin and thick films on metallic interconnects as cell supports. Applications as anode for SOFC

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    In this work, we propose the preparation of a duplex anodic layer composed of both a thin (100 nm) and a thick film (10 lm) with Ni–YSZ material. The support of this anode is a metallic substrate, which is the interconnect of the SOFC unit cell. The metallic support limits the temperature of thermal treatment at 800 C to keep a good interconnect mechanical behaviour and to reduce corrosion. We have chosen to elaborate anodic coatings by sol–gel route coupled with dip-coating process, which are low cost techniques and allow working with moderate temperatures. Thin films are obtained by dipping interconnect substrate into a sol, and thick films into an optimized slurry. After thermal treatment at only 800 C, anodic coatings are adherent and homogeneous. Thin films have compact microstructures that confer ceramic protective barrier on metal surface. Further coatings of 10 lm thick are porous and constitute the active anodic material

    Investigation of Graded La2NiO4+ Cathodes to Improve SOFC Electrochemical Performance

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    Mixed ionic and electronic conducting MIEC oxides are promising materials for use as cathodes in solid oxide fuel cells SOFCs due to their enhanced electrocatalytic activity compared with electronic conducting oxides. In this paper, the MIEC oxide La2NiO4+ was prepared by the sol-gel route. Graded cathodes were deposited onto yttria-stabilized zirconia YSZ pellets by dip-coating, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies were performed to characterize the symmetrical cell performance. By adapting the slurries, cathode layers with different porosities and thicknesses were obtained. A ceria gadolinium oxide CGO barrier layer was introduced, avoiding insulating La2Zr2O7 phase formation and thus reducing resistance polarization of the cathode. A systematic correlation between microstructure, composition, and electrochemical performance of these cathodes has been performed. An improvement of the electrochemical performance has been demonstrated, and a reduction in the area specific resistance ASR by a factor of 4.5 has been achieved with a compact interlayer of La2NiO4+ between the dense electrolyte and the porous La2NiO4+ cathode layer. The lowest observed ASR of 0.11 cm2 at 800°C was obtained from a symmetrical cell composed of a YSZ electrolyte, a CGO interlayer, an intermediate compact La2NiO4+ layer, a porous La2NiO4+ electrode layer, and a current collection layer of platinum paste

    Thick films of YSZ electrolytes by dip-coating process

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    Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ, 8% Y2O3) thick films were coated on porous Ni-YSZ substrates using the dip-coating process and a suspension with a new formulation. The suspension was obtained by addition of a polymeric matrix in a stable suspension of a commercial YSZ (Tosoh) powders dispersed in an azeotropic MEK-EtOH mixture. The green layers were densified after an optimization of the suspension composition. YSZ Tosoh particles encapsulated by a zirconium alkoxide sol and added with colloidal alkoxide precursor are used to load the suspension. The in situ growth of these colloids increases significantly the layers density after an appropriated heat treatment. The obtained films are continuous, homogeneous and 20 μm thick. Different microstructures are obtained depending on the synthesis parameters of the suspension

    Adaptive approximate Bayesian computation for complex models

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    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is a family of computational techniques in Bayesian statistics. These techniques allow to fi t a model to data without relying on the computation of the model likelihood. They instead require to simulate a large number of times the model to be fi tted. A number of re finements to the original rejection-based ABC scheme have been proposed, including the sequential improvement of posterior distributions. This technique allows to de- crease the number of model simulations required, but it still presents several shortcomings which are particu- larly problematic for costly to simulate complex models. We here provide a new algorithm to perform adaptive approximate Bayesian computation, which is shown to perform better on both a toy example and a complex social model.Comment: 14 pages, 5 figure

    Viscous stabilization of 2D drainage displacements with trapping

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    We investigate the stabilization mechanisms due to viscous forces in the invasion front during drainage displacement in two-dimensional porous media using a network simulator. We find that in horizontal displacement the capillary pressure difference between two different points along the front varies almost linearly as function of height separation in the direction of the displacement. The numerical result supports arguments taking into account the loopless displacement pattern where nonwetting fluid flow in separate strands (paths). As a consequence, we show that existing theories developed for viscous stabilization, are not compatible with drainage when loopless strands dominate the displacement process.Comment: The manuscript has been substantially revised. Accepted in Phys. Rev. Let

    Immigrant community integration in world cities

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    As a consequence of the accelerated globalization process, today major cities all over the world are characterized by an increasing multiculturalism. The integration of immigrant communities may be affected by social polarization and spatial segregation. How are these dynamics evolving over time? To what extent the different policies launched to tackle these problems are working? These are critical questions traditionally addressed by studies based on surveys and census data. Such sources are safe to avoid spurious biases, but the data collection becomes an intensive and rather expensive work. Here, we conduct a comprehensive study on immigrant integration in 53 world cities by introducing an innovative approach: an analysis of the spatio-temporal communication patterns of immigrant and local communities based on language detection in Twitter and on novel metrics of spatial integration. We quantify the "Power of Integration" of cities --their capacity to spatially integrate diverse cultures-- and characterize the relations between different cultures when acting as hosts or immigrants.Comment: 13 pages, 5 figures + Appendi

    Creep via dynamical functional renormalization group

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    We study a D-dimensional interface driven in a disordered medium. We derive finite temperature and velocity functional renormalization group (FRG) equations, valid in a 4-D expansion. These equations allow in principle for a complete study of the the velocity versus applied force characteristics. We focus here on the creep regime at finite temperature and small velocity. We show how our FRG approach gives the form of the v-f characteristics in this regime, and in particular the creep exponent, obtained previously only through phenomenological scaling arguments.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, RevTe

    Simulating temporal evolution of pressure in two-phase flow in porous media

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    We have simulated the temporal evolution of pressure due to capillary and viscous forces in two-phase drainage in porous media. We analyze our result in light of macroscopic flow equations for two-phase flow. We also investigate the effect of the trapped clusters on the pressure evolution and on the effective permeability of the system. We find that the capillary forces play an important role during the displacements for both fast and slow injection rates and both when the invading fluid is more or less viscous than the defending fluid. The simulations are based on a network simulator modeling two-phase drainage displacements on a two-dimensional lattice of tubes.Comment: 12 pages, LaTeX, 14 figures, Postscrip

    Influence of Thermal Treatment on Electrical and Physical Properties of Coated Ceramics

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    Technical dielectric materials and ceramics are used in many different high technology industrial areas and especially for spacecraft applications. On satellites, these materials are subjected to extreme conditions due to the space plasma environment. To survive, these ceramic insulators must have exceptional electrical and thermal properties. Boron Nitride (BN) and Aluminum Oxide (Al 2O3) are used in particular because they combine good electrical insulation and high thermal conductivity. However, BN and Al2O3 used in spacecraft interiors are exposed to critical radiation demands, where these insulators are irradiated by electrons with high energies and flux. Charged particles are trapped in the ceramics, producing high electric fields. Subsequently, internal disturbances and electrical breakdowns can occur. Over time, these phenomena may cause degradation or failure of various components and embedded systems. Consequently, this study endeavors to understand the physical mechanisms which occur in these ceramics materials under electron irradiation. These dielectrics materials have been characterized at ONERA Toulouse (DESP) in the CEDRE (Chambre d’Etude De Revêtement Electrisés) irradiation chamber. A parametric study was performed to assess the influence of incident energy and flux, temperature, coating s, annealing, and ionizing dose on the charging and relaxation kinetics of BN and Al2O3. Surface and thermal treatments were found to limit BN’s charging. Dedicated treatments enhanced charge transport. To identify the effect of thermal annealing on electrical behavior in these materials, a thorough study of electron trapping processes was performed using cathodoluminescence in the Electron Emission Test facility at Utah State University. These tests explored differences in the nature and density of defect states. Together, these investigations determined correlations between chemical, structural and physical properties for each insulator’s configurations. Further, we observed degradation of coatings and an evolution of the concentration of their chemical defects. Contamination and ageing effects were identified on the rough material surfaces of ceramics exposed under a critical electron flux. Therefore, treatments applied to optimize electrical properties were found to be ineffective, especially for long-term charging mitigation. We will discuss these results and compare them for each ceramic configuration. The goal of this investigation is to understand the predominant physical mechanisms and main structural and chemical differences between these ceramic configurations in order to perform an exhaustive correlation between the properties. In future studies, we propose to define a defect-based model which can be used to optimize a material to limit both its charging and degradation over the time
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