270 research outputs found

    Stem cell plasticity: time for a reappraisal?

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    n recent years an increasing number of publications have claimed that adult mammalian stem cells (SC) may be capable of differentiating across tissue lineage boundaries and that this plasticity may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for tissue regeneration. However, after a first phase of excitement, the issue of somatic SC plasticity remains controversial and the therapeutic perspectives are still elusive. In this review, we examine the general mechanisms which govern the function of SC, the identification and functional characterization of adult SC of different tissues and their putative capacity to transdifferentiate into mature cells of different origin. The potential clinical applications of adult SC for regenerative medicine are also discussed in each chapter. The method employed for preparing this review was the informal consensus development. Members of the Working Group on SC met four times and discussed the single points, previously assigned by the Chairman (S.T.), in order to achieve an agreement on different opinions and approve the final manuscript. All the authors of the present review have been working in the field of SC and have contributed original papers to peer-reviewed journals. In addition to the authors' own work, the present review examines articles published in journals covered by the Science Citation Index and Medline

    Molecular purging of multiple myeloma cells by ex-vivo culture and retroviral transduction of mobilized-blood CD34+ cells

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Tumor cell contamination of the apheresis in multiple myeloma is likely to affect disease-free and overall survival after autografting.</p> <p>Objective</p> <p>To purge myeloma aphereses from tumor contaminants with a novel culture-based purging method.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We cultured myeloma-positive CD34<sup>+ </sup>PB samples in conditions that retained multipotency of hematopoietic stem cells, but were unfavourable to survival of plasma cells. Moreover, we exploited the resistance of myeloma plasma cells to retroviral transduction by targeting the hematopoietic CD34<sup>+ </sup>cell population with a retroviral vector carrying a selectable marker (the truncated form of the human receptor for nerve growth factor, ΔNGFR). We performed therefore a further myeloma purging step by selecting the transduced cells at the end of the culture.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Overall recovery of CD34<sup>+ </sup>cells after culture was 128.5%; ΔNGFR transduction rate was 28.8% for CD34<sup>+ </sup>cells and 0% for CD138-selected primary myeloma cells, respectively. Recovery of CD34<sup>+ </sup>cells after ΔNGFR selection was 22.3%. By patient-specific Ig-gene rearrangements, we assessed a decrease of 0.7–1.4 logs in tumor load after the CD34<sup>+ </sup>cell selection, and up to 2.3 logs after culture and ΔNGFR selection.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>We conclude that <it>ex-vivo </it>culture and retroviral-mediated transduction of myeloma leukaphereses provide an efficient tumor cell purging.</p

    FTY720 Suppresses Liver Tumor Metastasis by Reducing the Population of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells

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    Background: Surgical procedures such as liver resection and liver transplantation are the first-line treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the high incidence of tumor recurrence and metastasis after liver surgery remains a major problem. Recent studies have shown that hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. We aim to investigate the mechanism of FTY720, which was originally applied as an immunomodulator, on suppression of liver tumor metastasis after liver resection and partial hepatic I/R injury. Methodology/Principal Findings: An orthotopic liver tumor model in Buffalo rat was established using the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA-RH7777. Two weeks after orthotopic liver tumor implantation, the rats underwent liver resection for tumor-bearing lobe and partial hepatic I/R injury. FTY720 (2 mg/kg) was administered through the inferior caval vein before and after I/R injury. Blood samples were taken at days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 for detection of circulating EPCs (CD133+CD34+). Our results showed that intrahepatic and lung metastases were significantly inhibited together with less tumor angiogenesis by FTY720 treatment. The number of circulating EPCs was also significantly decreased by FTY720 treatment from day 7 to day 28. Hepatic gene expressions of CXCL10, VEGF, CXCR3, CXCR4 induced by hepatic I/R injury were down-regulated in the treatment group. Conclusions/Significance: FTY720 suppressed liver tumor metastasis after liver resection marred by hepatic I/R injury in a rat liver tumor model by attenuating hepatic I/R injury and reducing circulating EPCs. © 2012 Li et al.published_or_final_versio

    Extracellular ATP is a pro-angiogenic factor for pulmonary artery vasa vasorum endothelial cells

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    Expansion of the vasa vasorum network has been observed in a variety of systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. We recently reported that a marked expansion of the vasa vasorum network occurs in the pulmonary artery adventitia of chronically hypoxic calves. Since hypoxia has been shown to stimulate ATP release from both vascular resident as well as circulatory blood cells, these studies were undertaken to determine if extracellular ATP exerts angiogenic effects on isolated vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVEC) and/or if it augments the effects of other angiogenic factors (VEGF and basic FGF) known to be present in the hypoxic microenvironment. We found that extracellular ATP dramatically increases DNA synthesis, migration, and rearrangement into tube-like networks on Matrigel in VVEC, but not in pulmonary artery (MPAEC) or aortic (AOEC) endothelial cells obtained from the same animals. Extracellular ATP potentiated the effects of both VEGF and bFGF to stimulate DNA synthesis in VVEC but not in MPAEC and AOEC. Analysis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides revealed that ATP, ADP and MeSADP were the most potent in stimulating mitogenic responses in VVEC, indicating the involvement of the family of P2Y1-like purinergic receptors. Using pharmacological inhibitors, Western blot analysis, and Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) in vitro kinase assays, we found that PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERK1/2 play a critical role in mediating the extracellular ATP-induced mitogenic and migratory responses in VVEC. However, PI3K/Akt and mTOR/p70S6K do not significantly contribute to extracellular ATP-induced tube formation on Matrigel. Our studies indicate that VVEC, isolated from the sites of active angiogenesis, exhibit distinct functional responses to ATP, compared to endothelial cells derived from large pulmonary or systemic vessels. Collectively, our data support the idea that extracellular ATP participates in the expansion of the vasa vasorum that can be observed in hypoxic conditions

    Multilineage hematopoietic recovery with concomitant antitumor effects using low dose Interleukin-12 in myelosuppressed tumor-bearing mice

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a cytokine well known for its role in immunity. A lesser known function of IL-12 is its role in hematopoiesis. The promising data obtained in the preclinical models of antitumor immunotherapy raised hope that IL-12 could be a powerful therapeutic agent against cancer. However, excessive clinical toxicity, largely due to repeat dose regimens, and modest clinical response observed in the clinical trials have pointed to the necessity to design protocols that minimize toxicity without affecting the anti-tumor effect of IL-12. We have focused on the lesser known role of IL-12 in hematopoiesis and hypothesized that an important clinical role for IL-12 in cancer may be as an adjuvant hematological cancer therapy. In this putative clinical function, IL-12 is utilized for the prevention of cancer therapy-related cytopenias, while providing concomitant anti-tumor responses over and above responses observed with the primary therapy alone. This putative clinical function of IL-12 focuses on the dual role of IL-12 in hematopoiesis and immunity.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We assessed the ability of IL-12 to facilitate hematopoietic recovery from radiation (625 rad) and chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide) in two tumor-bearing murine models, namely the EL4 lymphoma and the Lewis lung cancer models. Antitumor effects and changes in bone marrow cellularity were also assessed.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We show herein that carefully designed protocols, in mice, utilizing IL-12 as an adjuvant to radiation or chemotherapy yield facile and consistent, multilineage hematopoietic recovery from cancer therapy-induced cytopenias, as compared to vehicle and the clinically-utilized cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (positive control), while still providing concomitant antitumor responses over and above the effects of the primary therapy alone. Moreover, our protocol design utilizes single, low doses of IL-12 that did not yield any apparent toxicity.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Our results portend that despite its past failure, IL-12 appears to have significant clinical potential as a hematological adjuvant cancer therapy.</p

    Shaping immune responses through the activation of dendritic cells–P2 receptors

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    Dendritic cells (DCs) activate and shape the adaptive immune response by capturing antigens, migrating to peripheral lymphoid organs where naïve T cells reside, expressing high levels of MHC and costimulatory molecules and secreting cytokines and chemokines. DCs are endowed with a high degree of functional plasticity and their functions are tightly regulated. Besides initiating adaptive immune responses, DCs play a key role in maintaining peripheral tolerance toward self-antigens. On the basis of the information gathered from the tissue where they reside, DCs adjust their functional activity to ensure that protective immunity is favoured while unwanted or exaggerated immune responses are prevented. A wide variety of signals from neighbouring cells affecting DC functional activity have been described. Here we will discuss the complex role of extracellular nucleotides in the regulation of DC function and the role of P2 receptors as possible tools to manipulate immune responses