10 research outputs found

    Subjective hunger sensations and prospective food intake in obese and overweight subjects: influence of ethnicity

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    The thesis assessed the potential impact of ethnicity on subjective sensations of hunger and food intake. In a cross-sectional design, 18 Asians and 26 Europid overweight/ obese Australians had hunger/satiety sensations tracked before and for 2h after an oral glucose load. Prospective food intake was recorded at a buffet meal and over 24h. There were no differences in hunger/satiety sensations and food intake between ethnic groups but history of weight stability interacted with ethnicity to influence outcomes

    Effect of iron ... zinc fortified milk on iron status and functional outcomes in underweight children

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    Background Iron and zinc are essential micronutrients during school-age period. Milk could be an alternative medium for mineral fortification because it is consumed frequently by children. Objective To evaluate the effect of iron-zinc fortified milk supplementation on iron status and functional outcomes in underweight children. Methods 44 2 underweight subjects aged 7-10 years attending 10 primary schools in Jakarta and Solo were recruited in the study. Subjects who had chronic illnesses, severe anemia, thalassemia or cow's milk allergy were excluded. Blood samples were analyzed to determine hemoglobin, serum ferritin and serum zinc. Serum CRP was measured in sub sampled subjects (n= 60). Subjects were randomizedly allocated to receive iron-zinc fortified milk (n = 225) and standard milk (n = 217) for six months. The fortified milk will provide additional6.3 mg iron and 1.5 mg zinc per day (2 feeds). The main outcomes measured were iron status, cognitive function, growth, physical fitness and morbidity. Results Study groups were comparable at baseline. The fortified milk group had better physical fitness score and exercise duration at baseline. Both milk supplementations reduced the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency. Fortified milk improved the speed processing score (P< 0.0001), height (P<0.0001) and sitting height (P=O.Ol) significantly. Conclusion Supplementation of milk reduces the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency. Zinc-iron fortified milk gives positive impact on cognitive performance, growth, and physical fitness

    The effects of phytosterol in low fat milk on serum lipid levels among mild-moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects

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    <p>One of the most important risk factors for CHD is dyslipidemia, among others hypercholesterolemia or high LDL-cholesterol. Plant-sterols or phytosterols (PS) are among dietary factors known to lower blood cholesterol as part of therapeutic life-style changes diet. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of PS properly solubilized in a-partly vegetable oil-filled low fat milk, on serum lipid levels in mild-moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects. Randomized, two-arm parallel control group trial was conducted at Department of Nutrition-University of Indonesia in Jakarta from June to November 2006. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive dietary life-style changes counseling plus 1.2 g phytosterol/day in low-fat milk (PS-group) or control group receiving the counseling alone for six weeks period. There were no significant changes of serum total and LDL-cholesterol of control group after a six week of dietary counseling (respectively 218.3 ¬Ī 18.6 mg/dL to 219.6 ¬Ī 24.3 mg/dL and 164.7¬Ī21.8 mg/dL to 160.0¬Ī26.4 mg/dL). There were a significant decreases of serum total and LDL-cholesterol (respectively p=0.01 and p=0.004) among subjects receiving PS after a six weeks observation period (respectively 233.5¬Ī24.6 mg/dL to 211.2¬Ī30.3 mg/dL and 176.9¬Ī24.7 mg/dL to 154.5¬Ī24.3 mg/dL). There was a significant difference in the LDL-lowering effects (p=0.024) among the PS-group after a six weeks (22.4¬Ī27.9 mg/dL) as compared to the control group (4.7¬Ī17.2 mg/dL). No significant changes were found on serum HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in both groups. Although there was no significant difference found in daily nutrients intake between the-2 groups, however, significant reductions in body weight, body mass index and waist circumference were found only in the PS group (p=0.000; 0.000; 0.003, respectively). It is concluded that the lowering of total and LDL-cholesterol in those receiving life-style changes counseling plus 1.2 g PS daily for six weeks was significantly higher as compared to those of receiving counseling alone. <em><strong>(Med J Indones 2008; 17: 5-12) </strong></em></p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>TLC Diet, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, phytosterol, body mass index, waist-circumference</em></p

    Reduced serum zinc levels while improving growth of underweight school children in trial of zinc-fortified milk in Indonesia

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    Background Most children in low-income countries have inadequate dietary zinc. The study was aimed to demonstrate the effect of iron-zinc fortified milk in improving zinc status among underweight school children in Indonesia. Objective To evaluate the effects of milk fortification with zinc on serum zinc levels in underweight Indonesian school children. Methods A double-blind, randomized, controlled, communitybased study was conducted on 426 underweight children aged 7 to 9 years in several low economic income level elementary schools in Jakarta and Solo. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive either zinc-fortified milk (n= 217) or standard milk (n=209) for 6 months. The fortified milk provided an 2.38 mg zinc per day and the standard milk provided 0.88 mg zinc per day. Results Among underweight children, the prevalence of stunting with a height-for-age z-score < - 2.0 SD was 39.7%. Almost all subjects (98%) had zinc intake ofless than 60% of the Indonesian recommended daily allowance (RDA) for that particular age group. After receiving the milk intervention, mean serum zinc concentration declined significantly in both groups (from 13 .50 ¬Ī3.05 őľmol/Lat baseline to 10.59¬Ī1.93 őľmol/L, P< 0.05), but growth parameters (weight and height) improved. Conclusion Reduced mean serum zinc levels were observed in children who received standard milk, as well as those who received zinc-fortified milk. These reduction in serum zinc levels may be a part of homeostatic control mechanim for improving the negative zinc balance in zinc pools, as a negative effect on linear growth was not observed. Larger clinical trials of adequate sample size need to be conducted in order to provide better understanding on zinc regulation among underweight school children. [Paediatr lndones. 2012;52:118-24)

    Effect of a six-month iron-zinc fortified milk supplementation on nutritional status, physical capacity and speed learning process in Indonesian underweight schoolchildren: randomized, placebo-controlled

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    Aim to evaluated the effect of milk supplementation enriched with iron and zinc on indicators of growth, physical capacity and cognitive performance in underweight school-children.Method Two-armed, randomized controlled double-blind trial was performed in several primary schools in Jakarta and Surakarta, Indonesia. A total of 245 underweight schoolchildren aged 7-9 years living in urban poor areas of Jakarta and Solo were randomly allocated to receive two cups of iron-zinc fortified-milk (n = 121) or non-iron-zinc fortified milk (n= 124) supplementation daily for six months. Biochemical indicators, anthropometric indices, physical capacity and cognitive performance were measured at before and after the supplementation.Results The study shows that between the fortified and non-fortified milk group, there was no significant different in haemoglobin increase (0.01 + 0.96 mg/dL versus 0.17 + 0.81 mg/dL) nor serum ferritin increase (12.77 + 25.50 mcg/dL versus 14.99 + 29.56 mcg/dL). Unexpectedly, decreased in serum zinc was found in both groups (3.01 + 3.24 mMol/dL and 3.12 + 3.71 mMol/dL). There was significant higher increment (P=0.045) in body weight among the fortified milk group (1.31 + 0.69 kg) as compared to the non-fortified group (1.13 + 0.69 kg). Consistently, there was significant increase (P=0.025) in the indicator of underweight (WAZ) among the fortified milk group (1.47 + 0.50) as compared to the non-fortified group (1.33 + 0.47). There was significant improvement (P=0.001) of cognitive performance, i.e. coding test-score among the fortified group (12.74 + 11.76) as compared to the non-fortified group (8.31 + 9.60), but there was no significant difference found in the improvement of physical capacity score in both groups (10323.77 + 9253.83 versus 8435.94 + 8824.55).Conclusion Among underweight schoolchildren aged 7-9 y, supplementation of milk fortified with iron and zinc can provide better growth, and better speed processing of learning ability. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 193-202)Key words: Iron and zinc, underweight, growth, physical capacity, cognitive function, schoolchildren</p

    Effects of iron and zinc fortified milk supplementation on working memory of underweight poor-urban school children: A randomized double blind controlled trial

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    Background Undernutrition associated micronutrient deficiencies in children are still prevalent in most developing countries. Iron and zinc deficiencies are the most common micronutrient deficiency globally, which significantly contribute deficits in cognitive function. Fortification with iron and zinc has proven successfully in reducing certain cognitive impairments like memory. Objective To determine the effects of milk fortified with iron and zinc on memory of underweight poor-urban schoolchildren. Methods A double blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 218 underweight poor-urban schoolchildren aged 7-9 years old; 113 children were supplemented twice daily with 27 gram of milk fortified with iron pyrophosphate (12.15 mg) and zinc sulfate (4.4 mg) for three months, 105 children served as controls. Anthropometry measured including bodyweight, height, sitting height and middle upper arm circumference. Memory was measured using digit span backward test in Wechsler Intelligence Scales III. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS for Windows, version 11.0. Results Baseline data of digit span backward score in iron and zinc group was 2.4 (SD 1.2), and control group was 3.0 (SD 1.8). After intervention, mean digit span backward score in iron and zinc group was 3 .1 (SD 1.2) and in control group 3.0 (SD 1.3). There was no improvement digit span backward score in control group after intervention, compared with 0.7 point improvement in iron and zinc group (P=0.009). Conclusion Milk fortified with iron and zinc improves working memory of underweight poor-urban schoolchildren

    Association between C-reactive protein levels and physical fitness in 7 to 9 year old children at poor elementary schools in Surakarta, Indonesia

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    Background  Data  regarding inflammatory factors  in  children are not  so  well developed  as  in adults. Higher levels  of  physical fitness may be helpful in modifying the low-grade inflammatory state  that is  indexed  by  C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Objective  To  evaluate the association  of  physical fitness with  CRP levels in children  and  to identify the possible related factors. Methods  This  cross-sectional study was  conducted  at  poor elementary schools in Surakarta, Indonesia using a group  of  217 underweight children aged from 7 to 9 years old. Physical fitness was assessed using a modified Harvard Step Test.  CRP  levels were measured using a high-sensitivity  assay.  The  association between physical fitness and  CRP  level was assessed using linear regression analysis. Multivariate analyses were used to adjust covariates, and statistical analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows software version 15.0. Results  Subjects were 48% female  and  52% male, and eleven children (5%) had a  CRP  level  >  5 mg/L. Mean fitness level  and CRP  level did not differ  by  age and gender. Fitness level was not inversely correlated with  CRP  (r=0.10,  P=0.14).  Physical fitness was significantly correlated with BMI  (r=0.14;  P=0.04),  physical activity  [0R=3.3  (95% CI  1.7  to 6.4)], and fat intake  [0R=0.5 (95%  CI  0.2 to 0.9) ]. Conclusion  These findings indicate  that  physical fitness  is  not inversely correlated to  CRP  levels in children. However, our study reveased  an  association between high fat intake and low physical fitness as well  as  a significant association  between high physical activiry and physical fitness

    Impact of Bifidobacterium lactis supplementation on fecal microbiota in infants delivered vaginally compared to Caesarean section

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    Background It has been reported that infants born by Caesarean section have altered gut microbiota, with lower n umbers of bifidobacteria and Bacteroides, compared to that of infants who were delivered vaginally. Probiotic supplementation has been reported to have beneficial effects on the immune response, generally in relation to allergies. Objective To assess the effect of Bifidobacterium lactis (B. lactis) supplementation on the presence of B. lactis and bifidobacteria counts in stool of infants during the first 2 months of life . Methods We conducted an observational study of 122 healthy, breast-fed infants delivered vaginally or by Caesarean section. Infants assigned to the test group received breast milk and formula supplemented with the B. lactis probiotics. Infants in the control group received breast milk and formula without probiotics. The presence of B. lactis and stool bifidobacteria counts were determined at 1 month and 2 months of age. Growth, morbidity, serum immune markers, and stool immunoglobulin (lg) A were also assessed. Results B. lactis was more frequently detected in the stool of infants who received breast milk and probiotic-supplemented formula than in stool of infants who received breast milk and non-supplemented formula, both at 1 month and 2 months of age (OR 1,263; 95%Cl 11 to 15 1,030; P=0.003) . Of infants who received probiotic-supplemented formula, B. lactis was detected in 80% of those delivered by Caesarean section and in 3 8% of those delivered vaginally, at the 1-month mark. In infants delivered by Caesarean section, the mean stool bifidobacteria level at 1 month was significantly higher in the probiotic-supplemented group compared to that of the non-supplemented group (P=0.021) . Conclusion Early bifidobacteria supplementation of infants, particularly those delivered by Caesarean section, is associated with higher levels of stool bifidobacteria. Anthropometric data suggests beneficial effect s of bifidobacteria supplementation on infant growth, though most are not statistically significant