4,167 research outputs found

    Massive photons and Lorentz violation

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    All quadratic translation- and gauge-invariant photon operators for Lorentz breakdown are included into the Stueckelberg Lagrangian for massive photons in a generalized \xi-gauge. The corresponding dispersion relation and tree-level propagator are determined exactly, and some leading-order results are derived. The question of how to include such Lorentz-violating effects into a perturbative quantum-field expansion is addressed. Applications of these results within Lorentz-breaking quantum field theories include the regularization of infrared divergences as well as the free propagation of massive vector bosons.Comment: 12 pages, 1 figur

    Mutual funds and the U.S. equity market

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    Mutual funds have become an important intermediary between households and financial markets, especially the equity market. About half of all households have a mutual fund account, and mutual funds hold about one-fifth of household financial assets. Because households have favored equity investments in their mutual fund accounts, mutual funds currently hold about one-fifth of all publicly traded U.S. equities. In addition to discussing the recent growth of mutual funds and their role in household finances, this article analyzes the relationship between households' investment decisions in equity mutual funds and equity market prices.Mutual funds ; Capital market ; Stock market

    A First Experimental Limit on In-matter Torsion from Neutron Spin Rotation in Liquid He-4

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    We report the first experimental upper bound to our knowledge on possible in-matter torsion interactions of the neutron from a recent search for parity violation in neutron spin rotation in liquid He-4. Our experiment constrains a coefficient ζ\zeta consisting of a linear combination of parameters involving the time components of the torsion fields TμT^\mu and AμA^\mu from the nucleons and electrons in helium which violates parity. We report an upper bound of ζ<9.1x1023|\zeta|<9.1x10^{-23} GeV at 68% confidence level and indicate other physical processes that could be analyzed to constrain in-matter torsion.Comment: 12 pages, typo correcte

    Can galaxy growth be sustained through HI-rich minor mergers?

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    Local galaxies with specific star-formation rates (star-formation rate per unit mass; sSFR~0.2-10/Gyr) as high as distant galaxies (z~1-3), are very rich in HI. Those with low stellar masses, log M_star (M_sun)=8-9, for example, have M_HI/M_star~5-30. Using continuity arguments of Peng et al. (2014), whereby the specific merger rate is hypothesized to be proportional to the specific star-formation rate, and HI gas mass measurements for local galaxies with high sSFR, we estimate that moderate mass galaxies, log M_star (M_sun)=9-10.5, can acquire sufficient gas through minor mergers (stellar mass ratios ~4-100) to sustain their star formation rates at z~2. The relative fraction of the gas accreted through minor mergers declines with increasing stellar mass and for the most massive galaxies considered, log M_star (M_sun)=10.5-11, this accretion rate is insufficient to sustain their star formation. We checked our minor merger hypothesis at z=0 using the same methodology but now with relations for local normal galaxies and find that minor mergers cannot account for their specific growth rates, in agreement with observations of HI-rich satellites around nearby spirals. We discuss a number of attractive features, like a natural down-sizing effect, in using minor mergers with extended HI disks to support star formation at high redshift. The answer to the question posed by the title, "Can galaxy growth be sustained through \HI-rich minor mergers?", is maybe, but only for relatively low mass galaxies and at high redshift.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures; in final acceptance by A&

    Seals at sea: modelling seal distribution in the German bight based on aerial survey data

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    The Wadden Sea is an important habitat for harbour seals and grey seals. They regularly haul-out on sandbanks and islands along the coast. Comparably little is known about the time seals spend at sea and how they use the remainder of the North Sea. Yet, human activity in offshore waters is increasing and information on seal distribution in the North Sea is crucial for conservation and management. Aerial line transect surveys were conducted in the German bight from 2002 to 2007 to investigate the distribution and abundance of marine mammals. Distance sampling methodology was combined with density surface modelling for a spatially explicit analysis of seal distribution in the German North Sea. Depth and distance to coast were found to be relevant predictor variables for seal density. Density surface modelling allowed for a depiction of seal distribution in the study area as well as an abundance estimate. This is the first study to use aerial survey data to develop a density surface model (DSM) for a spatially explicit distribution estimate of seals at se

    Dissecting the complex environment of a distant quasar with MUSE

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    High redshift quasars can be used to trace the early growth of massive galaxies and may be triggered by galaxy-galaxy interactions. We present MUSE science verification data on one such interacting system consisting of the well-studied z=3.2 PKS1614+051 quasar, its AGN companion galaxy and bridge of material radiating in Lyalpha between the quasar and its companion. We find a total of four companion galaxies (at least two galaxies are new discoveries), three of which reside within the likely virial radius of the quasar host, suggesting that the system will evolve into a massive elliptical galaxy by the present day. The MUSE data are of sufficient quality to split the extended Lyalpha emission line into narrow velocity channels. In these the gas can be seen extending towards each of the three neighbouring galaxies suggesting that the emission-line gas originates in a gravitational interaction between the galaxies and the quasar host. The photoionization source of this gas is less clear but is probably dominated by the two AGN. The quasar's Lyalpha emission spectrum is double-peaked, likely due to absorbing neutral material at the quasar's systemic redshift with a low column density as no damping wings are present. The spectral profiles of the AGN and bridge's Lyalpha emission are also consistent with absorption at the same redshift indicating this neutral material may extend over > 50 kpc. The fact that the neutral material is seen in the line of sight to the quasar and transverse to it, and the fact that we see the quasar and it also illuminates the emission-line bridge, suggests the quasar radiates isotropically and any obscuring torus is small. These results demonstrate the power of MUSE for investigating the dynamics of interacting systems at high redshift.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figures, published in MNRA

    The cluster environments of radio loud quasars

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    We have carried out multi-colour imaging of the fields of a statistically complete sample of low-frequency selected radio loud quasars at 0.6<z<1.1, in order to determine the characteristics of their environments. The largest radio sources are located in the field, and smaller steep-spectrum sources are more likely to be found in richer environments, from compact groups through to clusters. This radio-based selection (including source size) of high redshift groups and clusters is a highly efficient method of detecting rich environments at these redshifts. Although our single filter clustering measures agree with those of other workers, we show that these statistics cannot be used reliably on fields individually, colour information is required for this.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, contribution to "Tracing Cosmic Evolution with Galaxy Clusters" (Sesto 2001), ASP Conference Serie
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