5,376 research outputs found

    La justice transitionnelle, un monde-carrefour

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    Le texte esquisse, au sujet de l’expertise de justice transitionnelle Ă©laborĂ©e depuis la fin des annĂ©es 1980, une sociologie des professions internationales. PlutĂŽt que de rechercher le sens de la norme ou de la rĂ©alitĂ© des politiques locales de justice, nous avons analysĂ© les trajectoires d’un groupe d’acteurs impliquĂ©s dans la production de cette expertise globale. Pour ce faire, nous avons eu recours Ă  la prosopographie, c’est-Ă -dire l’étude systĂ©matique d’une masse importante de donnĂ©es sur les trajectoires et caractĂ©ristiques de ces acteurs. Cette dĂ©marche Ă©claire les caractĂ©ristiques singuliĂšres du monde international de la justice transitionnelle, de maniĂšre complĂ©mentaire de la thĂ©orie des champs. MalgrĂ© son fort dĂ©veloppement, la justice transitionnelle ne forme pas un champ autonome et institutionnalisĂ©. L’ambivalence des propositions politiques que font ses promoteurs – entre amnistie et poursuites pĂ©nales, par exemple – est le reflet de sa nature de monde-carrefour, crĂ©Ă© par les interactions entre les mondes sociaux variĂ©s qui la constituent, par les coalitions diverses d’acteurs qui la portent ou n’y font que passer. Malentendus fonctionnels et techniques frontaliĂšres permettent de dĂ©finir une justice qui n’en est pas tout Ă  fait une.The article sketches a sociology of international professions through the study of the transitional justice expertise developed since the end of the 1980s. Rather than looking for the meaning of the norm or the efficiency of local justice policies, we analyzed the trajectories of a group of actors involved in the production of global expertise on transitional justice. To do this, we used prosopography, that is the systematic study of a large mass of data on the trajectories and characteristics of these actors. Complementing field theory, our approach sheds light on the singular characteristics of the international world of transitional justice. Despite its strong development, transitional justice does not form an autonomous and institutionalized field. The ambivalence of the political proposals made by its promoters - between amnesty and criminal prosecution, for example - is a reflection of its nature as a crossroads-world. This crossroads-world is the result of interactions between the various social worlds that constitute it, and by the various coalitions of actors who carry it or only pass through it. Functional misunderstandings and technical boundaries allow for the definition of a justice that is not quite one

    Quelle sociologie politique pour l'enquĂȘte globale ?

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    Au fil d’enquĂȘtes transnationales conduites depuis les annĂ©es 1980 entre l’AmĂ©rique du Nord, l’AmĂ©rique du Sud, et l’Asie, Yves Dezalay – seul ou accompagné de son acolyte Bryant Garth – a tracĂ© une voie originale au cƓur des sciences sociales de l’international. AncrĂ© dans la sociologie des champs et des capitaux, mais maintenant une posture toujours Ă©clectique sur le plan thĂ©orique comme dans les pratiques d’enquĂȘte, il a ouvert la brĂšche d’une sociologie incarnĂ©e de la mondialisation saisie au prisme des stratĂ©gies d’internationalisation et de reproduction des Ă©lites pĂ©riphĂ©riques, et des pratiques d’import-export des savoirs d’État. Aujourd’hui mobilisĂ©s dans une grande diversitĂ©Ì de sous-champs d’enquĂȘtes (sociologie des champs, Ă©conomie-monde, histoire connectĂ©e, critical legal studies, relations internationales, etc.) et par plusieurs gĂ©nĂ©rations de chercheurs travaillant sur les objets de l’international, les travaux d’Yves Dezalay sont restĂ©s pourtant peu discutĂ©s en tant que tels. PrĂšs de trente ans aprĂšs la publication de Marchands de droit (1992) qui marquait une premiĂšre ouverture de la sociologie des champs aux terrains internationaux, ce numĂ©ro fait le point sur les acquis, les usages et les difficultĂ©s d’une Ɠuvre particuliĂšrement riche et exigeante. Il est aussi l’occasion d’un Ă©tat des lieux critique sur les champs disciplinaires de l’enquĂȘte globale aujourd’hui en plein dĂ©veloppement. Through numerous transnational investigations conducted since the 1980s between North America, South America and Asia, Yves Dezalay—alone or accompanied by his accomplice Bryant Garth—has staked out an original path within the social science of the international. Anchored in the sociology of fields and capitals while maintaining an eclectic stance both in theory and investigative practices, Dezalay has crafted an embodied sociology of globalization that problematizes the internationalization and reproduction strategies of peripheral elites alongside the import-export of state-governing expertise. Mobilized across a great diversity of scholarly sub-fields—from field theory, world-economy theory, and connected history approaches to critical legal studies and international relations—as well as by multiple generations of scholars working on international objects, the works of Yves Dezalay have never been explicitly discussed. Nearly thirty years after the publication of Marchands de droit (1992) in French, marking the first attempt to extend the sociology of fields to the international, this special issue takes stock of the achievements, uses, and difficulties of a particularly rich yet demanding research approach. Embedded in this engagement with the work of Dezalay, this issue also makes a critical inventory of the disciplinary fields wherein global approaches are developing

    Le ressenti des parents de garçons ùgés de 11 à 19 ans sur l'information et la prise de décision concernant la vaccination contre le papillomavirus

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    Introduction : la vaccination contre les HPV est recommandĂ©e chez les garçons depuis 2019. Dans un contexte de couverture vaccinale faible, les Ă©tudes ont montrĂ© qu’un des principaux freins des parents pour vacciner leurs fils est le manque d’information. Or, la diffusion progressive d’information ne semble pas modifier le taux d’hĂ©sitation vaccinale. L’objectif de ce travail est de comprendre la maniĂšre dont les parents de garçons prennent cette dĂ©cision vaccinale ainsi que la façon dont elle s’articule avec l’apport d’information. MĂ©thode : Ă©tude qualitative par entretiens semi-dirigĂ©s rĂ©alisĂ©s auprĂšs de parents de garçons entre dĂ©cembre 2022 et mars 2023 dans les Hautes-Alpes. L’analyse est inspirĂ©e de la thĂ©orisation ancrĂ©e avec une analyse ouverte, une triangulation des donnĂ©es, puis une analyse intĂ©grative. RĂ©sultats : la dĂ©cision vaccinale peut s’intĂ©grer dans le cadre d’un choix parental plus large. Si elle est effectivement influencĂ©e par la possibilitĂ© d’ĂȘtre informĂ©, elle rĂ©sulte aussi de la reprĂ©sentation parentale de la vaccination et du rĂŽle du mĂ©decin traitant. De façon plus gĂ©nĂ©rale, les choix que font les parents dĂ©pendent de leur attitude vis-Ă -vis de la dĂ©cision, et de la place qu’ils accordent Ă  leur fils dans le processus dĂ©cisionnel. Toutes les dĂ©cisions sont influencĂ©es par les Ă©motions qu’elles suscitent et par les valeurs qu’elles mettent en jeu. Ces deux facteurs semblent avoir des effets contraires sur la dĂ©cision, Ă  l’image d’une balance. Ainsi, les Ă©motions ont tendance Ă  ne pas inciter Ă  la vaccination HPV et Ă  l’inverse, les valeurs sollicitĂ©es sont plutĂŽt en faveur du vaccin.Discussion : les prises de dĂ©cisions parentales sont complexes et elles reposent principalement sur les Ă©motions et les valeurs. Le mĂ©decin doit ainsi apporter des informations en tenant compte de ces paramĂštres afin d’informer au mieux les parents, tout en renforçant leur autonomie dans la dĂ©cision. Ceci nĂ©cessite d’avoir des outils de communication adaptĂ©s comme, par exemple, l’entretien motivationnel

    Evolution of T cell receptor beta loci in salmonids

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    T-cell mediated immunity relies on a vast array of antigen specific T cell receptors (TR). Characterizing the structure of TR loci is essential to study the diversity and composition of T cell responses in vertebrate species. The lack of good-quality genome assemblies, and the difficulty to perform a reliably mapping of multiple highly similar TR sequences, have hindered the study of these loci in non-model organisms. High-quality genome assemblies are now available for the two main genera of Salmonids, Salmo and Oncorhynchus. We present here a full description and annotation of the TRB loci located on chromosomes 19 and 25 of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To get insight about variations of the structure and composition of TRB locus across salmonids, we compared rainbow trout TRB loci with other salmonid species and confirmed that the basic structure of salmonid TRB locus is a double set of two TRBV-D-J-C loci in opposite orientation on two different chromosomes. Our data shed light on the evolution of TRB loci in Salmonids after their whole genome duplication (WGD). We established a coherent nomenclature of salmonid TRB loci based on comprehensive annotation. Our work provides a fundamental basis for monitoring salmonid T cell responses by TRB repertoire sequencing

    The natriuretic peptide receptor agonist osteocrin disperses Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm

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    Biofilms are highly tolerant to antimicrobials and host immune defense, enabling pathogens to thrive in hostile environments. The diversity of microbial biofilm infections requires alternative and complex treatment strategies. In a previous work we demonstrated that the human Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (hANP) displays a strong anti-biofilm activity toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa and that the binding of hANP by the AmiC protein supports this effect. This AmiC sensor has been identified as an analog of the human natriuretic peptide receptor subtype C (h-NPRC). In the present study, we evaluated the anti-biofilm activity of the h-NPRC agonist, osteocrin (OSTN), a hormone that displays a strong affinity for the AmiC sensor at least in vitro. Using molecular docking, we identified a pocket in the AmiC sensor that OSTN reproducibly docks into, suggesting that OSTN might possess an anti-biofilm activity as well as hANP. This hypothesis was validated since we observed that OSTN dispersed established biofilm of P. aeruginosa PA14 strain at the same concentrations as hANP. However, the OSTN dispersal effect is less marked than that observed for the hANP (−61% versus −73%). We demonstrated that the co-exposure of P. aeruginosa preformed biofilm to hANP and OSTN induced a biofilm dispersion with a similar effect to that observed with hANP alone suggesting a similar mechanism of action of these two peptides. This was confirmed by the observation that OSTN anti-biofilm activity requires the activation of the complex composed by the sensor AmiC and the regulator AmiR of the ami pathway. Using a panel of both P. aeruginosa laboratory reference strains and clinical isolates, we observed that the OSTN capacity to disperse established biofilms is highly variable from one strain to another. Taken together, these results show that similarly to the hANP hormone, OSTN has a strong potential to be used as a tool to disperse P. aeruginosa biofilms

    Mesenchymal stem cells limit vascular and epithelial damage and restore the impermeability of the urothelium in chronic radiation cystitis

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    Abstract Background Cellular therapy seems to be an innovative therapeutic alternative for which mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to be effective for interstitial and hemorrhagic cystitis. However, the action of MSCs on chronic radiation cystitis (CRC) remains to be demonstrated. The aim of this study was to set up a rat model of CRC and to evaluate the efficacy of MSCs and their mode of action. Methods CRC was induced by single-dose localized irradiation of the whole bladder using two beams guided by tomography in female Sprague–Dawley rat. A dose range of 20–80 Gy with follow-up 3–12 months after irradiation was used to characterize the dose effect and the kinetics of radiation cystitis in rats. For the treatment, the dose of 40 Gy was retained, and in order to potentiate the effect of the MSCs, MSCs were isolated from adipose tissue. After expansion, they were injected intravenously during the pre-chronic phase. Three injections of 5 million MSCs were administered every fortnight. Follow-up was performed for 12 months after irradiation. Results We observed that the intensity and frequency of hematuria are proportional to the irradiation dose, with a threshold at 40 Gy and the appearance of bleeding from 100 days post-irradiation. The MSCs reduced vascular damage as well as damage to the bladder epithelium. Conclusions These results are in favor of MSCs acting to limit progression of the chronic phase of radiation cystitis. MSC treatment may afford real hope for all patients suffering from chronic radiation cystitis resistant to conventional treatments

    Structural and functional characterization of an egg-laying hormone signaling system in a lophotrochozoan – The pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas)

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    International audienceThe egg-laying hormones (ELHs) of gastropod mollusks were characterized more than forty years ago. Yet, theyhave remained little explored in other mollusks. To gain insights into the functionality of the ELH signalingsystem in a bivalve mollusk – the oyster Crassostrea gigas, this study investigates the processing of its ELH pre-cursor (Cragi-ELH) by mass spectrometry. Some of the ELH mature peptides identified in this study were sub-sequently investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance and shown to adopt an extended alpha-helix structure in amicellar medium mimicking the plasma membrane. To further characterize the ELH signaling system in C. gigas,a G protein-coupled receptor phylogenetically related to ecdysozoan diuretic hormone DH44 and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors named Cragi-ELHR was also characterized functionally and shown to bespecifically activated by the two predicted mature ELH peptides and their N-terminal fragments. Both Cragi-ELHand Cragi-ELHR encoding genes were mostly expressed in the visceral ganglia (VG). Cragi-ELH expression wassignificantly increased in the VG of both fully mature male and female oysters at the spawning stage. When theoysters were submitted to a nutritional or hyposaline stress, no change in the expression of the ligand or receptorgenes was recorded, except for Cragi-ELHR only during a mild acclimation episode to brackish water. Theseresults suggest a role of Cragi-ELH signaling in the regulation of reproduction but not in mediating the stressresponse in our experimental conditions

    Palmitate-Induced Cardiac Lipotoxicity Is Relieved by the Redox-Active Motif of SELENOT through Improving Mitochondrial Function and Regulating Metabolic State

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    Cardiac lipotoxicity is an important contributor to cardiovascular complications during obesity. Given the fundamental role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident Selenoprotein T (SELENOT) for cardiomyocyte differentiation and protection and for the regulation of glucose metabolism, we took advantage of a small peptide (PSELT), derived from the SELENOT redox-active motif, to uncover the mechanisms through which PSELT could protect cardiomyocytes against lipotoxicity. To this aim, we modeled cardiac lipotoxicity by exposing H9c2 cardiomyocytes to palmitate (PA). The results showed that PSELT counteracted PA-induced cell death, lactate dehydrogenase release, and the accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets, while an inert form of the peptide (I-PSELT) lacking selenocysteine was not active against PA-induced cardiomyocyte death. Mechanistically, PSELT counteracted PA-induced cytosolic and mitochondrial oxidative stress and rescued SELENOT expression that was downregulated by PA through FAT/CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36/fatty acid translocase), the main transporter of fatty acids in the heart. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that PSELT also relieved the PA-dependent increase in CD36 expression, while in SELENOT-deficient cardiomyocytes, PA exacerbated cell death, which was not mitigated by exogenous PSELT. On the other hand, PSELT improved mitochondrial respiration during PA treatment and regulated mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, preventing the PA-provoked decrease in PGC1-α and increase in DRP-1 and OPA-1. These findings were corroborated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), revealing that PSELT improved the cardiomyocyte and mitochondrial ultrastructures and restored the ER network. Spectroscopic characterization indicated that PSELT significantly attenuated infrared spectral-related macromolecular changes (i.e., content of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates) and also prevented the decrease in membrane fluidity induced by PA. Our findings further delineate the biological significance of SELENOT in cardiomyocytes and indicate the potential of its mimetic PSELT as a protective agent for counteracting cardiac lipotoxicity

    Contre les normes ? Histoires d'architectes

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    La normativitĂ© est intimement liĂ©e Ă  l'architecture dans le sens large de la discipline : depuis l'instrument mĂȘme de la rĂšgle, mesurant dimensions et proportions, depuis les multiples rĂ©glementations accompagnant la construction jusqu'aux traitĂ©s fixant ordres et ordonnancements, en passant par les canons des discours historiographiques. Dans le prolongement d'une journĂ©e d'Ă©tude doctorale organisĂ©e Ă  Rennes en 2020, ce livre explore, Ă  travers le regard de six jeunes chercheurs, des questions de normativitĂ© au cours du XXe siĂšcle, interrogeant la capacitĂ© des architectes Ă  les contourner, voire Ă  les transgresser
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