134 research outputs found

    The role of macroeconomic policy in export-led growth

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    노트 : - This PDF is a selection from an out-of-print volume from the National Bureau of Economic Research -Volume Title: Financial Deregulation and Integration in East Asia, NBER-EASE Volume

    Characterizing First Arrival Position Channels: Noise Distribution and Capacity Analysis

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    This paper addresses two fundamental problems in diffusive molecular communication: characterizing the first arrival position (FAP) density and bounding the information transmission capacity of FAP channels. Previous studies on FAP channel models, mostly captured by the density function of noise, have been limited to specific spatial dimensions, drift directions, and receiver geometries. In response, we propose a unified solution for identifying the FAP density in molecular communication systems with fully-absorbing receivers. Leveraging stochastic analysis tools, we derive a concise expression with universal applicability, covering any spatial dimension, drift direction, and receiver shape. We demonstrate that several existing FAP density formulas are special cases of this innovative expression. Concurrently, we establish explicit upper and lower bounds on the capacity of three-dimensional, vertically-drifted FAP channels, drawing inspiration from vector Gaussian interference channels. In the course of deriving these bounds, we unravel an explicit analytical expression for the characteristic function of vertically-drifted FAP noise distributions, providing a more compact characterization compared to the density function. Notably, this expression sheds light on a previously undiscovered weak stability property intrinsic to vertically-drifted FAP noise distributions.Comment: 30 pages; 3 figures, 1 table; this paper is submitted to IEEE Transactions on Communication

    Gene expression profiling of breast cancer survivability by pooled cDNA microarray analysis using logistic regression, artificial neural networks and decision trees

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    BACKGROUND: Microarray technology can acquire information about thousands of genes simultaneously. We analyzed published breast cancer microarray databases to predict five-year recurrence and compared the performance of three data mining algorithms of artificial neural networks (ANN), decision trees (DT) and logistic regression (LR) and two composite models of DT-ANN and DT-LR. The collection of microarray datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus, four breast cancer datasets were pooled for predicting five-year breast cancer relapse. After data compilation, 757 subjects, 5 clinical variables and 13,452 genetic variables were aggregated. The bootstrap method, Mann–Whitney U test and 20-fold cross-validation were performed to investigate candidate genes with 100 most-significant p-values. The predictive powers of DT, LR and ANN models were assessed using accuracy and the area under ROC curve. The associated genes were evaluated using Cox regression. RESULTS: The DT models exhibited the lowest predictive power and the poorest extrapolation when applied to the test samples. The ANN models displayed the best predictive power and showed the best extrapolation. The 21 most-associated genes, as determined by integration of each model, were analyzed using Cox regression with a 3.53-fold (95% CI: 2.24-5.58) increased risk of breast cancer five-year recurrence… CONCLUSIONS: The 21 selected genes can predict breast cancer recurrence. Among these genes, CCNB1, PLK1 and TOP2A are in the cell cycle G2/M DNA damage checkpoint pathway. Oncologists can offer the genetic information for patients when understanding the gene expression profiles on breast cancer recurrence

    Efficient Pt( ii ) emitters assembled from neutral bipyridine and dianionic bipyrazolate: designs, photophysical characterization and the fabrication of non-doped OLEDs

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    Pt(ii) metal phosphor (1), with red-shifted emission versus non-planar counterpart (3), is particularly suitable for the fabrication of non-doped OLEDs.</p

    Near-Infrared Light Device Can Improve Intravenous Cannulation in Critically Ill Children

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    critically ill children; intravenous cannulation; near-infrared light device Background: Vascular access in critically ill children can be a real challenge for medical staff. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of a near-infrared light vein-viewing device for critically ill children, 60 pediatric inpatients were enrolled in a randomized prospective observation trial for intravenous cannulation. Methods: The patients&apos; demographic data, mean time required to find the first available vessel, first-attempt success rate, mean number of attempts per patient, and the total time taken on the attempts per patient were compared. Results: Less time was required to find the first available vessel in the near-infrared light device group compared with the control group (126.37 vs. 383.61 seconds; p Z 0.027). In addition, the near-infrared light device group had a fewer number of attempts compared with the control group (median 1 vs. 2; p Z 0.004), and also a shorter total time of attempts per patient compared with the control group (186.16 vs. 497.23 seconds; p Z 0.014). Conclusion: The use of a near-infrared light vein-viewing device for vascular access in critically ill children can decrease the total medical time and cost

    Evaluation of the In Vivo

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    Background. Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chi Shao) contains several phytochemicals with hypoglycemic actions. Current research aims to explore potential insulinotropic effects and long-term therapeutic efficacy of such herb against type 2 diabetes. Methods. Composition analysis for the ethanol extract (PRExt) was executed by high performance liquid chromatography. Polyphenol-enriched fraction was characterized by high pressure size exclusion chromatography. Multiple cell platforms were employed to evaluate hypoglycemic bioactivities. In animal experiments, blood glucose, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-index assessment, glucose tolerance test, and in vivo glucose uptake were all measured. Additional effects of PRExt on obesity and hepatic steatosis were evaluated by serum and histological analysis. Results. PRExt provides multiple hypoglycemic effects including the enhancement of glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Pentagalloylglucose and polyphenol-enriched fraction are two insulinotropic constituents. Moreover, PRExt intraperitoneal injection causes acute hypoglycemic effects on fasted db/db mice. Oral administration of PRExt (200 mg/kg b.w.) gradually reduces blood glucose in db/db mice to the level similar to that in C57J/B6 mice after 30 days. The improvement of glucose intolerance, HOMA-index, and in vivo glucose uptake is evident in addition to the weight loss effect and attenuation of hepatic steatosis. Conclusion. PRExt is an effective antidiabetic herbal extract with multiple hypoglycemic bioactivities

    The impact of active community-based survey on dementia detection ratio in Taiwan: A cohort study with historical control

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    BackgroundAlthough early dementia detection is crucial to optimize the treatment outcomes and the management of associated symptoms, the published literature is scarce regarding the effectiveness of active screening protocols in enhancing dementia awareness and increasing the rate of early detection. The present study compared the detection ratio of an active community-based survey for dementia detection with the detection ratio of passive screening during routine clinical practice. Data for passive screening were obtained from the National Health Insurance (NHI) system, which was prospectively collected during the period from 2000 to 2003.DesignA population-based cohort study with historical control.SettingTaiwan.ParticipantsA total of 183 participants aged 65 years or older were involved in a community-based survey. Data from 1,921,308 subjects aged 65 years or older were retrieved from the NHI system.MeasurementsAn adjusted detection ratio, defined as a ratio of dementia prevalence to incidence was used.ResultsThe results showed that the dementia prevalence during the 2000–2003 period was 2.91% in the elderly population, compared with a prevalence of 6.59% when the active survey was conducted. The incidence of dementia in the active survey cohort was 1.83%. Overall, the dementia detection ratio was higher using active surveys [4.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.68–6.69] than using passive detection (1.45, 95% CI: 1.43–1.47) for those aged 65–79 years. Similar findings were observed for those aged 80 years and older.ConclusionThe implementation of an active community-based survey led to a 3-fold increase in the detection rate of early dementia detection compared to passive screening during routine practice

    Comparison of Human and Soil Candida tropicalis Isolates with Reduced Susceptibility to Fluconazole

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    Infections caused by treatment-resistant non-albicans Candida species, such as C. tropicalis, has increased, which is an emerging challenge in the management of fungal infections. Genetically related diploid sequence type (DST) strains of C. tropicalis exhibiting reduced susceptibility to fluconazole circulated widely in Taiwan. To identify the potential source of these wildly distributed DST strains, we investigated the possibility of the presence in soil of such C. tropicalis strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DST typing methods. A total of 56 C. tropicalis isolates were recovered from 26 out of 477 soil samples. Among the 18 isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole, 9 belonged to DST149 and 3 belonged to DST140. Both DSTs have been recovered from our previous studies on clinical isolates from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY) program. Furthermore, these isolates were more resistant to agricultural azoles. We have found genetically related C. tropicalis exhibiting reduced susceptibility to fluconazole from the human hosts and environmental samples. Therefore, to prevent patients from acquiring C. tropicalis with reduced susceptibility to azoles, prudent use of azoles in both clinical and agricultural settings is advocated

    Host factors do not influence the colonization or infection by fluconazole resistant Candida species in hospitalized patients

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    Nosocomial yeast infections have significantly increased during the past two decades in industrialized countries, including Taiwan. This has been associated with the emergence of resistance to fluconazole and other antifungal drugs. The medical records of 88 patients, colonized or infected with Candida species, from nine of the 22 hospitals that provided clinical isolates to the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY) program in 1999 were reviewed. A total of 35 patients contributed fluconazole resistant strains [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ≧ 64 mg/l], while the remaining 53 patients contributed susceptible ones (MICs ≦ 8 mg/l). Fluconazole resistance was more frequent among isolates of Candida tropicalis (46.5%) than either C. albicans (36.8%) or C. glabrata (30.8%). There was no significant difference in demographic characteristics or underlying diseases among patients contributing strains different in drug susceptibility