381 research outputs found

    Improving antibiotic prescribing for children in the resource-poor setting.

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    Antibiotics are a critically important part of paediatric medical care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where infectious diseases are the leading cause of child mortality. The World Health Organization estimates that >50% of all medicines are prescribed, dispensed or sold inappropriately and that half of all patients do not take their medicines correctly. Given the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance globally, inappropriate antibiotic use is of international concern, and countries struggle to implement basic policies promoting rational antibiotic use. Many barriers to rational paediatric prescribing in LMICs persist. The World Health Organization initiatives, such as 'Make medicines child size', the Model List of Essential Medicines for Children and the Model Formulary for Children, have been significant steps forward. Continued strategies to improve access to appropriate drugs and formulations, in conjunction with improved evidence-based clinical guidelines and dosing recommendations, are essential to the success of such initiatives on both a national and an international level. This paper provides an overview of these issues and considers future developments that may improve LMIC antibiotic prescribing

    A Vaccine Against Group B Streptococcus: Recent Advances

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    Group B streptococcus (GBS) causes a high burden of neonatal and infant disease globally. Implementing a vaccine for pregnant women is a promising strategy to prevent neonatal and infant GBS disease and has been identified as a priority by the World Health Organisation (WHO). GBS serotype-specific polysaccharide – protein conjugate vaccines are at advanced stages of development, but a large number of participants would be required to undertake Phase III clinical efficacy trials. Efforts are therefore currently focused on establishing serocorrelates of protection in natural immunity studies as an alternative pathway for licensure of a GBS vaccine, followed by Phase IV studies to evaluate safety and effectiveness. Protein vaccines are in earlier stages of development but are highly promising as they might confer protection irrespective of serotype. Further epidemiological, immunological and health economic studies are required to enable the vaccine to reach its target population as soon as possible

    SIgA, TGF-beta 1, IL-10, and TNF alpha in Colostrum Are Associated with Infant Group B Streptococcus Colonization

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    Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in infants and is associated with transmission from a colonized mother at birth and via infected breastmilk. Although maternal/infant colonization with GBS is common, the majority of infants exposed to GBS remain unaffected. The association between breastmilk immune factors and infant colonization and disease prevention has not been elucidated. Objectives: We have investigated the association between SIgA and cytokines in breastmilk and infant GBS colonization and clearance. Methods: Mother/infant GBS colonization was determined in a prospective cohort of 750 Gambian mother/infant pairs followed to day 89 of life. Anti-GBS secretory IgA bound to the surface of whole bacteria was assessed by flow cytometry and a panel of 12 cytokines quantified by mesoscale discovery in colostrum, breastmilk and serum. Results: Compared with infants receiving low anti-GBS SIgA in colostrum, infants receiving high anti-GBS SIgA were at decreased risk of GBS colonization for serotypes III and V. Infants colonized at day 6 were twice as likely to receive colostrum with high TGF-β1, TNFα, IL10, and IL-6 compared to uncolonized infants. Infants receiving high colostral TGF-β1, TNFα, and IL-6 had two-fold enhanced GBS clearance between birth and day 89. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the infant GBS colonization risk diminishes with increasing anti-GBS SIgA antibody in breastmilk and that key maternally derived cytokines might contribute to protection against infant colonization. These findings might be leveraged to develop interventions including maternal vaccination that may reduce infant GBS colonization

    Travel-Associated Salmonella mbandaka Sacroiliac Osteomyelitis in a Healthy Adolescent.

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    Pyogenic infections of the sacroiliac joint are rare and usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus. We describe a case of a 16 year-old gymnast who was subsequently diagnosed with Salmonella mbandaka sacroiliac osteomyelitis with adjacent psoas abscess and hepatitis one week after returning from a holiday in Crete. This case highlights a rare presentation of a common travel-associated foodborne infection

    Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the Identification of Group B Streptococcus.

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    Objective Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal meningitis and sepsis worldwide. Intrapartum antibiotics given to women carrying GBS are an effective means of reducing disease in the first week of life. Rapid and reliable tests are needed to accurately identify GBS from these women for timely intrapartum antibiotic administration to prevent neonatal disease. Many laboratories now use matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) by direct plating or cell lysis for the identification of GBS isolates. The cell lysis step increases time to results for clinical samples and is more complex to perform. Therefore, we seek to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the quicker and more rapid direct plating method in identifying GBS. Results We directly compared swab isolates analysed by both direct plating and cell lysis method and demonstrated that direct plating has a sensitivity and specificity of 0.97 and 1, respectively, compared to an additional cell lysis step. We demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS can be successfully used for batch processing by the direct plating method which saves time. These results are reassuring for laboratories worldwide who seek to identify GBS from swabs samples as quickly as possible

    Breast milk and Group B streptococcal infection: Vector of transmission or vehicle for protection?

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    Invasive Group-B streptococcal (GBS) disease is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity worldwide. GBS colonises the maternal rectum and vagina and transmission of bacteria from a colonized mother to her infant at birth is an important risk factor for GBS disease. GBS disease has also been associated with case reports of transmission via infected breast milk raising questions about mode of acquisition and transmission of this enteric pathogen and the development of neonatal disease. However, most breastfed infants remain unaffected by GBS in breast milk. Mechanisms associated with transmission of GBS in breast milk and potential factors that may protect the infant from transmission remain poorly understood. Understanding factors involved in protection or transmission of GBS infection via breast milk is important both for premature infants who are a high-risk group and for infants in the developing world where breastfeeding is the only sustainable infant feeding option. In this review we discuss the proposed mechanisms for GBS colonization in breast milk on one hand and its immune factors that may protect from transmission of GBS from mother to infant on the other. Innate and adaptive immune factors, including serotype-specific antibody and their significance in the prevention of infant disease are presented. We further report on the role of human oligosaccharides in protection from invasive GBS disease. Advances in our knowledge about breast milk and immunity in GBS disease are needed to fully appreciate what might mitigate transmission from mother to infant and protect neonates from this devastating disease and to contribute to the development of novel prevention strategies, including maternal immunization to prevent infant disease

    Defining operational strengths and gaps relevant to post licensure Group B Streptococcus vaccine effectiveness studies: an expert stakeholder evaluation of the United Kingdom and Uganda

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    A future Group B Streptococcal (GBS) vaccine for pregnant women to protect neonates is likely to be licensed based on evidence of vaccine induced protective antibody levels. Post licensure surveillance to monitor the impact of any future vaccine on GBS disease therefore needs to be clearly defined (in both high and low income settings). A priority research gap is understanding health system preparedness for a GBS vaccine evaluation This expert stakeholder evaluation aimed to describe the UK and Uganda's operational strengths and gaps relevant to post-licensure GBS vaccine studies

    Fifteen minute consultation: Managing neonatal and childhood herpes encephalitis

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    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common single cause of viral encephalitis in infants and children. Treated or untreated, it can be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, and its presentation is usually insidious and non-specific. Prompt and careful investigation is important in order to establish the diagnosis so that treatment can be optimised. We address some common questions arising when diagnosing and treating presumed HSE throughout childhood
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