17 research outputs found

    Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection

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    International audienceTwo of the crucial aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are (i) viral persistence in reservoirs (precluding viral eradication) and (ii) chronic inflammation (directly associated with all-cause morbidities in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-controlled HIV-infected patients). The objective of the present study was to assess the potential involvement of adipose tissue in these two aspects. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF); the latter comprises immune cells such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages (both of which are important target cells for HIV). The inflammatory potential of adipose tissue has been extensively described in the context of obesity. During HIV infection, the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue has been revealed by the occurrence of lipodystrophies (primarily related to ART). Data on the impact of HIV on the SVF (especially in individuals not receiving ART) are scarce. We first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. The adipocyte density was elevated, and adipose tissue immune cells presented enhanced immune activation and/or inflammatory profiles. We detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the SVF and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. We demonstrated that SVF cells (including CD4+ T cells) are infected in ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. Importantly, the production of HIV RNA was detected by in situ hybridization, and after the in vitro reactivation of sorted CD4+ T cells from adipose tissue. We thus identified adipose tissue as a crucial cofactor in both viral persistence and chronic immune activation/inflammation during HIV infection. These observations open up new therapeutic strategies for limiting the size of the viral reservoir and decreasing low-grade chronic inflammation via the modulation of adipose tissue-related pathway

    Planifier l'enseignement de l'oral : un dilemme perpétuel

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    Lazure Roger. Planifier l'enseignement de l'oral : un dilemme perpétuel. In: La Lettre de la DFLM, n°15, 1994/2. pp. 10-12

    L’oral… à bout de souffle?

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    Note de synthèse

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    Gagne Gilles, Lazure Roger. Note de synthèse . In: Revue française de pédagogie, volume 66, 1984. pp. 69-98

    Enseignement et apprentissage du français oral soutenu en situation formelle

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    Gagné Gilles, Ostiguy Luc, Lazure Roger. Enseignement et apprentissage du français oral soutenu en situation formelle. In: La Lettre de la DFLM, n°15, 1994/2. pp. 13-15

    Évaluation de l'efficacité des mesures visant l'amélioration du français écrit du primaire à l'université

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    Cette étude a été financée par le Fonds québécois de la recherche sur la société et la culture (FQRSC) dans le cadre du programme d'actions concrètes sur la persévérance et la réussite scolaire. Elle a été réalisée avec la collaboration de Pierre Barrette, d'Annie Desnoyers et de Michel Sylvestre

    Les mesures d'aide en français et leurs effets : y a-t-il une recette gagnante? /

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    Tiré de l'écran-titre (visionné le 27 mars 2013)

    Les mesures d'aide en français et leurs effets : entre perception et réalité /

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    Tiré de l'écran-titre (visionné le 27 mars 2013)

    Extreme aggression in male squid induced by a beta-MSP-like pheromone

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    Male-male aggression is widespread in the animal kingdom and subserves many functions related to the acquisition or retention of resources such as shelter, food, and mates. These functions have been studied widely in the context of sexual selection, yet the proximate mechanisms that trigger or strengthen aggression are not well known for many taxa. Various external sensory cues (visual, audio, chemical) acting alone or in combination stimulate the complex behavioral interactions of fighting behaviors [1]. Here we report the discovery of a 10 kDa protein, termed Loligo β-microseminoprotein (Loligo β-MSP), that immediately and dramatically changes the behavior of male squid from calm swimming and schooling to extreme fighting, even in the absence of females. Females synthesize Loligo β-MSP in their reproductive exocrine glands and embed the protein in the outer tunic of egg capsules, which are deposited on the open sea floor. Males are attracted to the eggs visually, but upon touching them and contacting Loligo β-MSP, they immediately escalate into intense physical fighting with any nearby males. Loligo β-MSP is a distant member of the chordate β-microseminoprotein family [2] found in mammalian reproductive secretions, suggesting that this gene family may have taxonomically widespread roles in sexual competition

    Detection of HIV DNA and RNA in adipose tissue.

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    <p>(A) Detection of HIV DNA in SVF cells and PBMCs from 11 ART-treated, HIV-infected patients. Each patient is represented by a symbol, and the shading represents the type of adipose tissue: SCAT (open symbols), VAT (filled symbols). (B) HIV DNA detection in sorted CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells recovered from adipose tissue and PBMCs from 3 ART-treated, HIV-infected patients. The HIV DNA detection assay was performed in duplicate and is expressed in log copies per million cells. The detection limit differed as a function of the numbers of cells tested and is indicated as </p><dl>in situ hybridization assay for HIV RNA was performed on three samples of adipose tissue recovered from ART-treated, HIV-infected patients (1 VAT and 2 SCAT samples). Positive control: a prostate tissue sample from a viremic patient. One slide was analyzed for each sample. HIV RNA staining for each positive patient is shown. Scale bar: 50 ÎĽm.<p></p></dl
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