1,878 research outputs found

    Analytical methods for series compensation of a transmission line

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    The paper proposes an analytical approach to evaluate the effects of series compensation of an overhead transmission line (OHL) concerning the increase of (1) loadability and (2) practical loading of the line. The first part of the paper focuses only on the line characteristics, and proposes an analytical approach to determine the loadability curves of the line as a function of the compensating capacitive reactance. In the second part of the paper, the perspective shifts to examine the power loading of the selected OHL in a meshed electrical network. The target is to evaluate the compensation degree required to achieve a desired power flow increase in the line. To this purpose a fast analytical method, based on the compensation theorem, is presented. Preserving the linearity of the network model, the proposed method allows computation of the needed compensation degree by means of a closed form equation. Numerical applications performed on two simple test networks allow to compare the method with an ad hoc implemented classical optimal power flow. The results validate the method and highlight its effectiveness as a simple and useful tool to support power system planners and designers

    Multiancestry analysis of the HLA locus in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases uncovers a shared adaptive immune response mediated by HLA-DRB1*04 subtypes

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    Across multiancestry groups, we analyzed Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) associations in over 176,000 individuals with Parkinson‚Äôs disease (PD) and Alzheimer‚Äôs disease (AD) versus controls. We demonstrate that the two diseases share the same protective association at the HLA locus. HLA-specific fine-mapping showed that hierarchical protective effects of HLA-DRB1*04 subtypes best accounted for the association, strongest with HLA-DRB1*04:04 and HLA-DRB1*04:07, and intermediary with HLA-DRB1*04:01 and HLA-DRB1*04:03. The same signal was associated with decreased neurofibrillary tangles in postmortem brains and was associated with reduced tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid and to a lower extent with increased Aő≤42. Protective HLA-DRB1*04 subtypes strongly bound the aggregation-prone tau PHF6 sequence, however only when acetylated at a lysine (K311), a common posttranslational modification central to tau aggregation. An HLA-DRB1*04-mediated adaptive immune response decreases PD and AD risks, potentially by acting against tau, offering the possibility of therapeutic avenues

    Design of a Low-Voltage Mock-Up of a New Multi-Terminal Italian HVDC Transmission System

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    High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems, especially in multi-terminal configuration, are expected to help accelerating the green energy transition in Europe, allowing the interconnections with remote renewable energy production sites. The SACOI2 HVDC system, operated by Terna S.p.A and √Člectricit√© de France S.A., is the only operating European multi-terminal transmission system and is currently undergoing a refurbishment phase with the aim to upgrade to the new SACOI3. Recent developments on HVDC circuit breakers (CBs) suggest further investigation in a possible adoption of half-bridge VSC (HB-VSC) converters. In this paper, an experimental low voltage prototype of the SACOI3 with scaled voltage and current values, being able to reproduce accurately the full-scale system, is designed and tested through electromagnetic transient analysis tools. The reduced scale mock-up examined in the paper will investigate the expected performances of a future SACOI3 link using HB-VSC converters, with experimentally measurable results

    Countermeasures for reduction of screen currents due to cross country faults in MV cable distribution networks

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    This paper investigates the reduction of Cross-Country-Faults currents in medium voltage (MV) cable networks in order to decrease thermal stress of cable screens, especially inside joints. Four methods are analyzed: 1) disconnection of cable screens from the earth electrode of primary substation (PS); 2) buried ground wire laid near the cable lines and connected to each earth electrode of secondary substations (SSs) and PS; 3) buried ground wire and disconnection of the bonded cable screens from the earth electrode only at sending/receiving end of each cable line between two consecutive SSs; 4) cross bonding of cable screens between two consecutive SSs. Methods are analysed by ATP-EMTP simulations of a 150/20 kV radial test system formed by eight 5 km long cable lines equipped with 50 mm2 copper conductors per phase and 16 mm2 copper screen per cable. Compared to the limiting reactors countermeasure presented in a previous paper by the authors, which seems the solution less burdensome both technically and economically for existing lines, method 3 is more effective but its implementation is limited only to newly built lines, whereas the main drawback of method 1 is the increase of ground potential rise at fault locations

    Diminishing benefits of urban living for children and adolescents’ growth and development

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    Optimal growth and development in childhood and adolescence is crucial for lifelong health and well-being1‚Äď6. Here we used data from 2,325 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight from 71 million participants, to report the height and body-mass index (BMI) of children and adolescents aged 5‚Äď19 years on the basis of rural and urban place of residence in 200 countries and territories from 1990 to 2020. In 1990, children and adolescents residing in cities were taller than their rural counterparts in all but a few high-income countries. By 2020, the urban height advantage became smaller in most countries, and in many high-income western countries it reversed into a small urban-based disadvantage. The exception was for boys in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa and in some countries in Oceania, south Asia and the region of central Asia, Middle East and north Africa. In these countries, successive cohorts of boys from rural places either did not gain height or possibly became shorter, and hence fell further behind their urban peers. The difference between the age-standardized mean BMI of children in urban and rural areas was <1.1 kg m‚Äď2 in the vast majority of countries. Within this small range, BMI increased slightly more in cities than in rural areas, except in south Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and some countries in central and eastern Europe. Our results show that in much of the world, the growth and developmental advantages of living in cities have diminished in the twenty-first century, whereas in much of sub-Saharan Africa they have amplified

    Updated constraints on sterile neutrino mixing in the OPERA experiment using a new őĹ e identification method

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    Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of rapamycin in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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    In preclinical studies rapamycin was found to target neuroinflammation, by expanding regulatory T cells, and affecting autophagy, two pillars of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. Herein we report a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial, in 63 ALS patients who were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive rapamycin 2 mg/m2/day,1 mg/m2/day or placebo (EUDRACT 2016-002399-28; NCT03359538). The primary outcome, the number of patients exhibiting an increase >30% in regulatory T cells from baseline to treatment end, was not attained. Secondary outcomes were changes from baseline of T, B, NK cell subpopulations, inflammasome mRNA expression and activation status, S6-ribosomal protein phosphorylation, neurofilaments; clinical outcome measures of disease progression; survival; safety and quality of life. Of the secondary outcomes, rapamycin decreased mRNA relative expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18, reduced plasmatic IL-18 protein, and increased the percentage of classical monocytes and memory switched B cells, although no corrections were applied for multiple tests. In conclusion, we show that rapamycin treatment is well tolerated and provides reassuring safety findings in ALS patients, but further trials are necessary to understand the biological and clinical effects of this drug in ALS

    RPC-based Muon Identification System for the neutrino detector of the SHiP experiment

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    The SHiP experiment has been proposed at CERN to shed light on phenomena still unexplained in the framework of the Standard Model, such as the nature of dark matter, the baryonic asymmetry of the Universe and the neutrino oscillations, searching for hints of New Physics. A section of the detector will be dedicated to the study of neutrino physics with special emphasis on tau neutrino properties, still very poorly measured. A system to identify the muons produced in neutrino interactions, based on RPC technology, has been proposed and it is presented in detail in this paper
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