4,258 research outputs found

    Analysis of the marketing strategy of the Ibalgin product line

    No full text
    Tato pr√°ce se snaŇĺ√≠ podrobnńõ zachytit vŇ°echny strategie uplatŇąovan√© znańćkou Ibalgin pro jej√≠ produktovou Ňôadu. C√≠lem je posoudit jej√≠ efektivitu a¬†navrhnout doporuńćen√≠ k¬†zlepŇ°en√≠ st√°vaj√≠c√≠ strategie. Abychom l√©pe porozumńõli situaci na trhu, je k¬†dispozici anal√Ĺza trhu, kter√° se zamńõŇôuje na analgetika. Popsan√© marketingov√© strategie jsou zaloŇĺeny na sbńõru dat a¬†pozorov√°n√≠ na internetu, k¬†podrobnostem jako je chov√°n√≠ z√°kazn√≠ka nebo postaven√≠ z√°kazn√≠ka k¬†znańćce, bylo vyuŇĺito i¬†ter√©nn√≠ho pozorov√°n√≠, v√Ĺzkumu pomoc√≠ dotazn√≠kov√©ho kombinovan√©ho Ň°etŇôen√≠ a¬†kvalitativn√≠ch rozhovorŇĮ.This paper attempts to capture in detail all the strategies applied by the Ibalgin brand for its product line. The aim is to assess its effectiveness and suggest recommendations to improve the current strategy. In order to better understand the market situation, a¬†market analysis is provided that focuses on analgesics. The marketing strategies described are based on data collection and internet observation; field observation, research using a¬†questionnaire-based combined survey and qualitative interviews were also used to obtain details such as customer behaviour or customer's position towards the brand

    Signaling Cascade Involved in Rapid Stimulation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) by Dexamethasone

    No full text
    Impairment of mucociliary clearance with reduced airway fluid secretion leads to chronically inflamed airways. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is crucially involved in airway fluid secretion and dexamethasone (dexa) has previously been shown to elevate CFTR activity in airway epithelial cells. However, the pathway by which dexa increases CFTR activity is largely unknown. We aimed to determine whether the increase of CFTR activity by dexa is achieved by non-genomic signaling and hypothesized that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is involved in CFTR stimulation. Primary rat airway epithelial cells and human bronchial submucosal gland-derived Calu-3 cells were analyzed in Ussing chambers and kinase activation was determined byWestern blots. Results demonstrated a critical involvement of PI3K and protein kinase B (AKT) signaling in the dexa-induced increase of CFTR activity, while serum and glucocorticoid dependent kinase 1 (SGK1) activity was not essential. We further demonstrated a reduced neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 4-like (NEDD4L) ubiquitin E3 ligase activity induced by dexa, possibly responsible for the elevated CFTR activity. Finally, increases of CFTR activity by dexa were demonstrated within 30 min accompanied by rapid activation of AKT. In conclusion, dexa induces a rapid stimulation of CFTR activity which depends on PI3K/AKT signaling in airway epithelial cells. Glucocorticoids might thus represent, in addition to their immunomodulatory actions, a therapeutic strategy to rapidly increase airway fluid secretion

    Signaling Cascade Involved in Rapid Stimulation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) by Dexamethasone

    No full text
    Impairment of mucociliary clearance with reduced airway fluid secretion leads to chronically inflamed airways. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is crucially involved in airway fluid secretion and dexamethasone (dexa) has previously been shown to elevate CFTR activity in airway epithelial cells. However, the pathway by which dexa increases CFTR activity is largely unknown. We aimed to determine whether the increase of CFTR activity by dexa is achieved by non-genomic signaling and hypothesized that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is involved in CFTR stimulation. Primary rat airway epithelial cells and human bronchial submucosal gland-derived Calu-3 cells were analyzed in Ussing chambers and kinase activation was determined byWestern blots. Results demonstrated a critical involvement of PI3K and protein kinase B (AKT) signaling in the dexa-induced increase of CFTR activity, while serum and glucocorticoid dependent kinase 1 (SGK1) activity was not essential. We further demonstrated a reduced neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 4-like (NEDD4L) ubiquitin E3 ligase activity induced by dexa, possibly responsible for the elevated CFTR activity. Finally, increases of CFTR activity by dexa were demonstrated within 30 min accompanied by rapid activation of AKT. In conclusion, dexa induces a rapid stimulation of CFTR activity which depends on PI3K/AKT signaling in airway epithelial cells. Glucocorticoids might thus represent, in addition to their immunomodulatory actions, a therapeutic strategy to rapidly increase airway fluid secretion

    Glucocorticoids Equally Stimulate Epithelial Na+ Transport in Male and Female Fetal Alveolar Cells

    No full text
    Preterm infants frequently suffer from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), possibly due to lower expression of epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC). RDS incidence is sex-specific, affecting males almost twice as often. Despite the use of antenatal glucocorticoids (GCs), the sex difference persists. It is still controversial whether both sexes benefit equally from GCs. We previously showed that Na+ transport is higher in female compared with male fetal distal lung epithelial (FDLE) cells. Since GCs increase Na+ transport, we hypothesized that their stimulating effect might be sex-specific. We analyzed FDLE cells with Ussing chambers and RT-qPCR in the presence or absence of fetal serum. In serum-free medium, GCs increased the ENaC activity and mRNA expression, independent of sex. In contrast, GCs did not increase the Na+ transport in serum-supplemented media and abolished the otherwise observed sex difference. Inhibition of the GC receptor in the presence of serum did not equalize Na+ transport between male and female cells. The GC-induced surfactant protein mRNA expression was concentration and sex-specific. In conclusion, female and male FDLE cells exhibit no sex difference in response to GCs with regard to Na+ transport, and GR activity does not contribute to the higher Na+ transport in females

    Glucocorticoids Equally Stimulate Epithelial Na+ Transport in Male and Female Fetal Alveolar Cells

    No full text
    Preterm infants frequently suffer from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), possibly due to lower expression of epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC). RDS incidence is sex-specific, affecting males almost twice as often. Despite the use of antenatal glucocorticoids (GCs), the sex difference persists. It is still controversial whether both sexes benefit equally from GCs. We previously showed that Na+ transport is higher in female compared with male fetal distal lung epithelial (FDLE) cells. Since GCs increase Na+ transport, we hypothesized that their stimulating effect might be sex-specific. We analyzed FDLE cells with Ussing chambers and RT-qPCR in the presence or absence of fetal serum. In serum-free medium, GCs increased the ENaC activity and mRNA expression, independent of sex. In contrast, GCs did not increase the Na+ transport in serum-supplemented media and abolished the otherwise observed sex difference. Inhibition of the GC receptor in the presence of serum did not equalize Na+ transport between male and female cells. The GC-induced surfactant protein mRNA expression was concentration and sex-specific. In conclusion, female and male FDLE cells exhibit no sex difference in response to GCs with regard to Na+ transport, and GR activity does not contribute to the higher Na+ transport in females

    eCH-0249 Anforderungen an ein staatliches Identitätsmanagementsystem (IdMS) V1.0.0

    No full text
    Dieses Hilfsmittel beschreibt die wesentlichen Anforderungen von Benutzerinnen und Benutzern, sowie nutzenden Diensten an ein staatliches Identit√§tsmanagementsystem (IdMS). Dazu werden zuvor die m√∂glichen Typen von Identit√§tsmanagementsystemen (IdMS) gegen√ľbergestellt.Le pr√©sent document auxiliaire d√©crit les principales exigences des utilisatrices et utilisateurs ainsi que des services utilisateurs relatives √† un syst√®me √©tatique de gestion des identit√©s (IdMS). Pour ce faire, il est proc√©d√© au pr√©alable √† une comparaison des types possibles de syst√®mes de gestion des identit√©s (IdMS)
    • ‚Ķ
    corecore