411 research outputs found

    STAndardised DIagnostic Assessment for children and young people with emotional difficulties (STADIA): protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial

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    Introduction: Emotional disorders (such as anxiety and depression) are associated with considerable distress and impairment in day-to-day function for affected children and young people and for their families. Effective evidence-based interventions are available but require appropriate identification of difficulties to enable timely access to services. Standardised diagnostic assessment (SDA) tools may aid in the detection of emotional disorders, but there is limited evidence on the utility of SDA tools in routine care and equipoise among professionals about their clinical value. Methods and analysis: A multicentre, two-arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial, with embedded qualitative and health economic components. Participants will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to either the Development and Well-Being Assessment SDA tool as an adjunct to usual clinical care, or usual care only. A total of 1210 participants (children and young people referred to outpatient, specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services with emotional difficulties and their parent/carers) will be recruited from at least 6 sites in England. The primary outcome is a clinician-made diagnosis about the presence of an emotional disorder within 12 months of randomisation. Secondary outcomes include referral acceptance, diagnosis and treatment of emotional disorders, symptoms of emotional difficulties and comorbid disorders and associated functional impairment. Ethics and dissemination: The study received favourable opinion from the South Birmingham Research Ethics Committee (Ref. 19/WM/0133). Results of this trial will be reported to the funder and published in full in the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Journal series and also submitted for publication in a peer reviewed journal

    Effect of the microstructure of graphitic boron nitride on the kinetics of the formation of boron nitride high-pressure phases

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    Three types of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) with graphitic crystal structure having different microstructures were subjected to high pressures (HP) and high temperatures (HT), and the kinetics of the phase transitions to the sp3^3-hybridized phases (w-BN, c-BN) was studied using in situ synchrotron diffraction. The analysis of the phase transformation kinetics revealed the transformation paths and activation energies Ea_a of the transformation of h-BN to the high-pressure forms of BN for different microstructures of h-BN. Defect-poor h-BN transforms to metastable wurtzitic BN (w-BN) with Ea_a ≈ 0.3 eV/at. Defect-rich forms of h-BN transform directly to c-BN, but with a higher activation energy. It was observed that the turbostratic disorder in h-BN retards the phase transition as compared to h-BN containing corrugated basal planes and a low degree of turbostracity. The experimental results are discussed in view of the microstructure changes during the HP/HT treatment and compared to available theoretical phase transition models

    Role of astrocytes, microglia, and tanycytes in brain control of systemic metabolism.

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    Astrocytes, microglia, and tanycytes play active roles in the regulation of hypothalamic feeding circuits. These non-neuronal cells are crucial in determining the functional interactions of specific neuronal subpopulations involved in the control of metabolism. Recent advances in biology, optics, genetics, and pharmacology have resulted in the emergence of novel and highly sophisticated approaches for studying hypothalamic neuronal-glial networks. Here we summarize the progress in the field and argue that glial-neuronal interactions provide a core hub integrating food-related cues, interoceptive signals, and internal states to adapt a complex set of physiological responses operating on different timescales to finely tune behavior and metabolism according to metabolic status. This expanding knowledge helps to redefine our understanding of the physiology of food intake and energy metabolism

    Golgi-localized STELLO proteins regulate the assembly and trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes in Arabidopsis.

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    As the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, cellulose is a key structural component of the plant cell wall. Cellulose is produced at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes (CSCs), which are assembled in the endomembrane system and trafficked to the plasma membrane. While several proteins that affect CesA activity have been identified, components that regulate CSC assembly and trafficking remain unknown. Here we show that STELLO1 and 2 are Golgi-localized proteins that can interact with CesAs and control cellulose quantity. In the absence of STELLO function, the spatial distribution within the Golgi, secretion and activity of the CSCs are impaired indicating a central role of the STELLO proteins in CSC assembly. Point mutations in the predicted catalytic domains of the STELLO proteins indicate that they are glycosyltransferases facing the Golgi lumen. Hence, we have uncovered proteins that regulate CSC assembly in the plant Golgi apparatus.The work presented in this paper was supported by grants from the BBSRC: BB/G016240/1 BBSRC Sustainable Energy Centre Cell Wall Sugars Programme (BSBEC) and the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme SUNLIBB (FP7/2007-2013) under the grant agreement n° 251132 to PD. The UK 850 MHz solid-state NMR Facility was funded by EPSRC and BBSRC, as well as the University of Warwick including via part funding through Birmingham Science City Advanced Materials Projects 1 and 2 supported by Advantage West Midlands (AWM) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF); we thank Dinu Iuga for experimental assistance, and Chris Somerville for helpful discussions and suggesting the name STELLO. The authors acknowledge LNBio and LNLS for providing X-ray beam time (proposal GAR 15208), and the Sainsbury Laboratory Cambridge University for imaging facilities. TV was supported by an EMBO long-term fellowship (ALTF 711-2012) and by postdoctoral funding from the Philomathia Foundation. HEM was supported by an EMBO Long Term Fellowship (ALTF-1246-2013) and an NSERC Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF-454454-2014). SP and YZ were supported by the Max-Planck Gesellschaft, and SP was also supported by a R@MAP Professor position at UoM. We thank the Biological Optical Microscopy Platform (BOMP) at University of Melbourne, and Tom Simmons and Rita Marques for assistance on sugar analyses.This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Nature Publishing Group via http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11656

    Microbes and Alzheimer's disease

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    We are researchers and clinicians working on Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or related topics, and we write to express our concern that one particular aspect of the disease has been neglected, even though treatment based on it might slow or arrest AD progression. We refer to the many studies, mainly on humans, implicating specific microbes in the elderly brain, notably herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1),Chlamydia pneumoniae, and several types of spirochaete, in the etiology of AD [1–4]. Fungal infection of AD brain [5, 6] has also been described, as well as abnormal microbiota in AD patient blood [7]. The first observations of HSV1 in AD brain were reported almost three decades ago [8]. The ever-increasing number of these studies (now about 100 on HSV1 alone) warrants re-evaluation of the infection and AD concept. AD is associated with neuronal loss and progressive synaptic dysfunction, accompanied by the deposition of amyloid- (A) peptide, a cleavage product of the amyloid- protein precursor (APP), and abnormal forms of tau protein, markers that have been used as diagnostic criteria for the disease [9, 10]. These constitute the hallmarks of AD, but whether they are causes of AD or consequences is unknown. We suggest that these are indicators of an infectious etiology. In the case of AD, it is often not realized that microbes can cause chronic as well as acute diseases; that some microbes can remain latent in the body with the potential for reactivation, the effects of which might occur years after initial infection; and that people can be infected but not necessarily affected, such that ‘controls’, even if infected, are asymptomatic [2]

    Community metabolomics in environmental microbiology

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    Evidence from 16S rRNA gene sequences indicates that as yet uncultured microorganisms represent the vast majority of organisms in most environments on earth. However, since many species cannot be cultured within a laboratory setting, these communities are mostly unstudied and consequently there has been little insight into the genetics, physiology and biochemistry of their members. The new field of community metabolomics is about to change this scenario. In the same way as metagenomics indicates the analyses of all DNA from a given sample, community metabolomics looks at the entirety of the thousands of naturally occurring metabolites from the meta-population of a sample of a given environment such as soil or water, and perhaps even air. In this chapter we outline how this new field has recently been applied to generate new insights into these unexplored areas of the bacterial realm in the fields of environmental science and technology, within natural, laboratory and even industrial, settings. Potential future applications in this area are also discussed. Keyword
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