31 research outputs found

    Agricultural Microcredit and Household Vulnerability in Rural Malawi

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    Abstract this paper evaluates the impact of agricultural microcredit on household consumption and vulnerability. empirical analysis based on our paired-site sampling survey in rural malawi reveals that, while the credit uptake leads to an increase in non-food consumption, it does not significantly affect food consumption. the analysis also shows that shocks with adverse effects such as health-related shocks and agricultural shocks reduce household consumption, although food consumption is insured. the households who have taken credit better cope with health-related shocks in terms of consumption smoothing. it thus seems that participation in the agricultural microcredit program strengthens coping capability with idiosyncratic shocks. in contrast, the agricultural microcredit program appears to be unable to ameliorate the adverse effects of agricultural shocks, which implies that for co-variant shocks different types of mitigating institutions such as microinsurance programs may be more desirable

    THE REFORM OF RURAL LAND MARKETS IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: RESEARCH, THEORY, AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS

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    Note: This volume includes "Economic Theory of Land Markets and Its Implications for the Land Access of the Rural Poor," by Michael R. Carter and Dina Mesbah, (June 1990) This paper summarizes recent research on rural land markets in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region and on the relationship between this research and broader land tenure issues. The purpose of the project that prompted this paper was to carry out cross-country and longitudinal research on land tenure issues in the LAC region so as to provide an instructive and informative analysis of how tenure patterns affect economic, rural development, and environmental issues. The project's principal research areas were: (1) tenure security through improved titling and land registration systems, (2) the potential for farmland markets to increase access to land, and (3) second-generation problems of existing agrarian reforms. This paper summarizes the research undertaken by the Land Tenure Center on the second of these research areas. The studies reviewed are exploratory and are designed to investigate how land markets work in order to develop projects and policies that will make the markets more open and efficient and more accessible to land-poor and landless farmers. The paper is in six parts. Following a general introduction and discussion of the broad schematic framework which guided the fieldwork, section 2 discusses the constraints to small farmer participation in rural land markets. Section 3 examines the country study research carried out under the project, while section 4 begins the process of putting these studies into the theoretical framework needed for future research and programs. Section 5 discusses potential land market interventions, and section 6 presents the conclusions derived from the paper. The annex is an essay titled "Economic Theory of Land Markets and Its Implications for the Land Access of the Rural Poor," by Michael R. Carter and Dina Mesbah

    LAND TENANCY IN ASIA, AFRICA, AND LATIN AMERICA: A LOOK AT THE PAST AND A VIEW TO THE FUTURE

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    This literature review focuses on recent and contemporary tenancy structures in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Tenancy for purposes of this review is broadly defined to include different leasing arrangements such sharecropping, labor tenancy, fixed cash rentals, and reverse leasing. We have limited our discussion to private leasing of agricultural land, thereby ignoring issues pertaining to leasing of public, forest, and other noncrop lands. The purpose of this literature review is to provide a basis for evaluation of the desirability, feasibility, and potential content of regulatory guidelines for lease agreements that might permit the land-lease market to operate effectively. The works discussed herein are both theoretical and empirical. We have attempted to locate the most recent literature on tenancy for Asia, Africa, and Latin America. If contemporary literature is scarce or if historical developments are useful to understanding current tenancy trends, references and inclusion of recent past experiences and dynamics are included. As can be expected, the availability of studies on tenancy in the three regions is quite different

    FORMALIZING INFORMALITY: THE PRAEDIAL REGISTRATION SYSTEM IN PERU

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    The Praedial Property Registration system has been presented as an alternative system to traditional registries for the formalization of immovable property. Much of the earlier design and pilot work for the Praedial Property Registration system was done by the Peruvian private organization, Instituto Libertad y Democracia (ILD). They claim that in Peru they "have formalized over 150,000 properties much more quickly, and at dramatically less costs, than traditional titling and registration programs" in three-and-a-half years during the early 1990s. This property formalization system has been trademarked as PROFORM. It is being offered to other countries as a quick and inexpensive way to convert informal property in the hands of a large proportion of the population into legally recognized private property, and as a source of capital for the grassroots development of these countries. This study assesses the functioning of this system in Peru and its replicability in other countries. There is no easily accessible documentation on how this property formalization program has actually functioned in Peru, and it is therefore difficult for development agencies to determine its applicability elsewhere. This assessment of the Registro Predial in Peru is an attempt to document the functioning of an important component of this formalization program. The study examines different aspects of property formalization and related institutions and processes. The scope of this assessment, therefore, includes not only the Registro Predial registration system, but also the titling process (prior to registration) and the credit worthiness and credit opportunities for titled and registered property in both urban and rural areas in Lima that fall under the jurisdiction of the Registro Predial. The study also examines the concepts and legal framework of titling, registration, ownership rights, and possession rights within the Peruvian context

    GENDER, ETHNICITY, AND LANDED PROPERTY IN ALBANIA

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    Methods used to privatize state property attest to Albania's commitment to a democratic and egalitarian society: farmland was distributed to the households working on the ex-collectives and state farms, and housing was sold at a nominal price to the families occupying it. There are social issues, however, that influence not only the potential role of property ownership in the development of a democratic society, but also the true workability of some persons' political and economic opportunities. This paper examines two of these social issues: gender and ethnicity. Assuming that property ownership is a necessary condition for establishing a democratic market economy, the potential denial to exercise those rights for a significant proportion of the population on the basis of gender or ethnicity could undermine Albania's attempts to establish a democratic society and dynamic market economy based on equal opportunity

    Toward secure and effective access for rural women

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    PRIFPRI4; CRP2PHND; EPTD; PIMCGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM
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