648 research outputs found

    Using brain cell-type-specific protein interactomes to interpret neurodevelopmental genetic signals in schizophrenia

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    Summary: Genetics have nominated many schizophrenia risk genes and identified convergent signals between schizophrenia and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, functional interpretation of the nominated genes in the relevant brain cell types is often lacking. We executed interaction proteomics for six schizophrenia risk genes that have also been implicated in neurodevelopment in human induced cortical neurons. The resulting protein network is enriched for common variant risk of schizophrenia in Europeans and East Asians, is down-regulated in layer 5/6 cortical neurons of individuals affected by schizophrenia, and can complement fine-mapping and eQTL data to prioritize additional genes in GWAS loci. A sub-network centered on HCN1 is enriched for common variant risk and contains proteins (HCN4 and AKAP11) enriched for rare protein-truncating mutations in individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Our findings showcase brain cell-type-specific interactomes as an organizing framework to facilitate interpretation of genetic and transcriptomic data in schizophrenia and its related disorders

    A Search for Technosignatures Around 11,680 Stars with the Green Bank Telescope at 1.15–1.73 GHz

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    Abstract: We conducted a search for narrowband radio signals over four observing sessions in 2020–2023 with the L-band receiver (1.15–1.73 GHz) of the 100 m diameter Green Bank Telescope. We pointed the telescope in the directions of 62 TESS Objects of Interest, capturing radio emissions from a total of ∼11,680 stars and planetary systems in the ∼9′ beam of the telescope. All detections were either automatically rejected or visually inspected and confirmed to be of anthropogenic nature. We also quantified the end-to-end efficiency of radio SETI pipelines with a signal injection and recovery analysis. The UCLA SETI pipeline recovers 94.0% of the injected signals over the usable frequency range of the receiver and 98.7% of the injections when regions of dense radio frequency interference are excluded. In another pipeline that uses incoherent sums of 51 consecutive spectra, the recovery rate is ∼15 times smaller at ∼6%. The pipeline efficiency affects calculations of transmitter prevalence and SETI search volume. Accordingly, we developed an improved Drake figure of merit and a formalism to place upper limits on transmitter prevalence that take the pipeline efficiency and transmitter duty cycle into account. Based on our observations, we can state at the 95% confidence level that fewer than 6.6% of stars within 100 pc host a transmitter that is continuously transmitting a narrowband signal with an equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP) > 1013 W. For stars within 20,000 ly, the fraction of stars with detectable transmitters (EIRP > 5 × 1016 W) is at most 3 × 10−4. Finally, we showed that the UCLA SETI pipeline natively detects the signals detected with AI techniques by Ma et al

    The LHCb upgrade I

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    International audienceThe LHCb upgrade represents a major change of the experiment. The detectors have been almost completely renewed to allow running at an instantaneous luminosity five times larger than that of the previous running periods. Readout of all detectors into an all-software trigger is central to the new design, facilitating the reconstruction of events at the maximum LHC interaction rate, and their selection in real time. The experiment's tracking system has been completely upgraded with a new pixel vertex detector, a silicon tracker upstream of the dipole magnet and three scintillating fibre tracking stations downstream of the magnet. The whole photon detection system of the RICH detectors has been renewed and the readout electronics of the calorimeter and muon systems have been fully overhauled. The first stage of the all-software trigger is implemented on a GPU farm. The output of the trigger provides a combination of totally reconstructed physics objects, such as tracks and vertices, ready for final analysis, and of entire events which need further offline reprocessing. This scheme required a complete revision of the computing model and rewriting of the experiment's software

    The LHCb upgrade I

    No full text
    International audienceThe LHCb upgrade represents a major change of the experiment. The detectors have been almost completely renewed to allow running at an instantaneous luminosity five times larger than that of the previous running periods. Readout of all detectors into an all-software trigger is central to the new design, facilitating the reconstruction of events at the maximum LHC interaction rate, and their selection in real time. The experiment's tracking system has been completely upgraded with a new pixel vertex detector, a silicon tracker upstream of the dipole magnet and three scintillating fibre tracking stations downstream of the magnet. The whole photon detection system of the RICH detectors has been renewed and the readout electronics of the calorimeter and muon systems have been fully overhauled. The first stage of the all-software trigger is implemented on a GPU farm. The output of the trigger provides a combination of totally reconstructed physics objects, such as tracks and vertices, ready for final analysis, and of entire events which need further offline reprocessing. This scheme required a complete revision of the computing model and rewriting of the experiment's software

    Mitochondrial diseases in Hong Kong: prevalence, clinical characteristics and genetic landscape

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    Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of mitochondrial diseases (MD) in Hong Kong (HK) and to evaluate the clinical characteristics and genetic landscape of MD patients in the region. Methods This study retrospectively reviewed the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of MD patients from participating public hospitals in HK between January 1985 to October 2020. Molecularly and/or enzymatically confirmed MD cases of any age were recruited via the Clinical Analysis and Reporting System (CDARS) using relevant keywords and/or International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes under the HK Hospital Authority or through the personal recollection of treating clinicians among the investigators. Results A total of 119 MD patients were recruited and analyzed in the study. The point prevalence of MD in HK was 1.02 in 100,000 people (95% confidence interval 0.81–1.28 in 100,000). 110 patients had molecularly proven MD and the other nine were diagnosed by OXPHOS enzymology analysis or mitochondrial DNA depletion analysis with unknown molecular basis. Pathogenic variants in the mitochondrial genome (72 patients) were more prevalent than those in the nuclear genome (38 patients) in our cohort. The most commonly involved organ system at disease onset was the neurological system, in which developmental delay, seizures or epilepsy, and stroke-like episodes were the most frequently reported presentations. The mortality rate in our cohort was 37%. Conclusion This study is a territory-wide overview of the clinical and genetic characteristics of MD patients in a Chinese population, providing the first available prevalence rate of MD in Hong Kong. The findings of this study aim to facilitate future in-depth evaluation of MD and lay the foundation to establish a local MD registry

    Multitargeted 6-Substituted Thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines as Folate Receptor-Selective Anticancer Agents that Inhibit Cytosolic and Mitochondrial One-Carbon Metabolism

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    Multitargeted agents with tumor selectivity result in reduced drug resistance and dose-limiting toxicities. We report 6-substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine compounds (3-9) with pyridine (3, 4), fluorine-substituted pyridine (5), phenyl (6, 7), and thiophene side chains (8, 9), for comparison with unsubstituted phenyl (1, 2) and thiophene side chain (10, 11) containing thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine compounds. Compounds 3-9 inhibited proliferation of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) expressing folate receptors (FRs) α or β but not the reduced folate carrier (RFC); modest inhibition of CHO cells expressing the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) by 4, 5, 6, and 9 was observed. Replacement of the side-chain 1′,4′-phenyl ring with 2′,5′-pyridyl, or 2′,5′-pyridyl with a fluorine insertion ortho to l-glutamate resulted in increased potency toward FR-expressing CHO cells. Toward KB tumor cells, 4-9 were highly active (IC50’s from 2.11 to 7.19 nM). By metabolite rescue in KB cells and in vitro enzyme assays, de novo purine biosynthesis was identified as a targeted pathway (at 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (AICARFTase) and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFTase)). Compound 9 was 17- to 882-fold more potent than previously reported compounds 2, 10, and 11 against GARFTase. By targeted metabolomics and metabolite rescue, 1, 2, and 6 also inhibited mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyl transferase 2 (SHMT2); enzyme assays confirmed inhibition of SHMT2. X-ray crystallographic structures were obtained for 4, 5, 9, and 10 with human GARFTase. This series affords an exciting new structural platform for potent multitargeted antitumor agents with FR transport selectivity

    Paging the Clinical Informatics Community: Respond STAT to Dobbs v Jackson's Women's Health Organization

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    If the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was a wake-up call that clinical informatics and digital health play vital roles in our future, the 2022 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization (Dobbs)[1] is a blaring alarm. Dobbs, which overturned Roe v Wade and Planned Parenthood v. Casey, allows states to individually regulate access to abortion. This ruling has triggered the enforcement of existing state laws that ban or restrict abortion and efforts to pass similar new laws

    The LHCb upgrade I