38 research outputs found

    Density Models and Safety Analysis for Rural Unsignalised Restricted Crossing U-turn Intersections

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    AbstractThe first objective of this study was to provide designers with a model that would help them assess the suitability of implementing an unsignalized restricted crossing U-turn (RCUT) based on the traffic volume arriving to a given rural intersection. Specifically, this study identified the zones that were most susceptible to bottlenecks and provided regression models that calculate the traffic density as a function of the traffic volume. In addition, the second objective of this study was to look at how the number of traffic conflicts varied with the traffic volume. Two geometric design cases were studied: four-lane and six-lane arterials using 1000 foot long (305 m long) weaving sections. VISSIM traffic simulations were used to identify the critical zones, and calculate the traffic density for different traffic flows. Volumes and densities allowed the development of regression models. Two critical zones were identified: where vehicles coming from the minor road merge to enter the U-turn and where vehicles exiting the U-turn merge to the multilane arterial. Also, based on the classification given by this study to the traffic volumes, a sensitivity analysis determined which of them had the greatest impact on the level of service. For the number of traffic conflicts from simulation, the Surrogate Safety Analysis Model was applied to measure them. This study found that at certain traffic volumes, traffic conflicts rise sharply. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd

    Impact of Transmammary-Delivered Meloxicam on Biomarkers of Pain and Distress in Piglets after Castration and Tail Docking

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    To investigate a novel route for providing analgesia to processed piglets via transmammary drug delivery, meloxicam was administered orally to sows after farrowing. The objectives of the study were to demonstrate meloxicam transfer from sows to piglets via milk and to describe the analgesic effects in piglets after processing through assessment of pain biomarkers and infrared thermography (IRT). Ten sows received either meloxicam (30 mg/kg) (n = 5) or whey protein (placebo) (n = 5) in their daily feedings, starting four days after farrowing and continuing for three consecutive days. During this period, blood and milk samples were collected at 12-hour intervals. On Day 5 after farrowing, three boars and three gilts from each litter were castrated or sham castrated, tail docked, and administered an iron injection. Piglet blood samples were collected immediately before processing and at predetermined times over an 84-hour period. IRT images were captured at each piglet blood collection point. Plasma was tested to confirm meloxicam concentrations using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Meloxicam was detected in all piglets nursing on medicated sows at each time point, and the mean (± standard error of the mean) meloxicam concentration at castration was 568.9±105.8 ng/mL. Furthermore, ex-vivo prostaglandin E2(PGE2) synthesis inhibition was greater in piglets from treated sows compared to controls (p = 0.0059). There was a time-by-treatment interaction for plasma cortisol (p = 0.0009), with meloxicam-treated piglets demonstrating lower cortisol concentrations than control piglets for 10 hours after castration. No differences in mean plasma substance P concentrations between treatment groups were observed (p = 0.67). Lower cranial skin temperatures on IRT were observed in placebo compared to meloxicam-treated piglets (p = 0.015). This study demonstrates the successful transfer of meloxicam from sows to piglets through milk and corresponding analgesia after processing, as evidenced by a decrease in cortisol and PGE2levels and maintenance of cranial skin temperature

    TGF-β Inducible Early Gene 1 Regulates Osteoclast Differentiation and Survival by Mediating the NFATc1, AKT, and MEK/ERK Signaling Pathways

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    TGF-β Inducible Early Gene-1 (TIEG1) is a Krüppel-like transcription factor (KLF10) that was originally cloned from human osteoblasts as an early response gene to TGF-β treatment. As reported previously, TIEG1−/− mice have decreased cortical bone thickness and vertebral bone volume and have increased spacing between the trabeculae in the femoral head relative to wildtype controls. Here, we have investigated the role of TIEG1 in osteoclasts to further determine their potential role in mediating this phenotype. We have found that TIEG1−/− osteoclast precursors differentiated more slowly compared to wildtype precursors in vitro and high RANKL doses are able to overcome this defect. We also discovered that TIEG1−/− precursors exhibit defective RANKL-induced phosphorylation and accumulation of NFATc1 and the NFATc1 target gene DC-STAMP. Higher RANKL concentrations reversed defective NFATc1 signaling and restored differentiation. After differentiation, wildtype osteoclasts underwent apoptosis more quickly than TIEG1−/− osteoclasts. We observed increased AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathway activation in TIEG1−/− osteoclasts, consistent with the roles of these kinases in promoting osteoclast survival. Adenoviral delivery of TIEG1 (AdTIEG1) to TIEG1−/− cells reversed the RANKL-induced NFATc1 signaling defect in TIEG1−/− precursors and eliminated the differentiation and apoptosis defects. Suppression of TIEG1 with siRNA in wildtype cells reduced differentiation and NFATc1 activation. Together, these data provide evidence that TIEG1 controls osteoclast differentiation by reducing NFATc1 pathway activation and reduces osteoclast survival by suppressing AKT and MEK/ERK signaling

    Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome

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    The sequence of the human genome encodes the genetic instructions for human physiology, as well as rich information about human evolution. In 2001, the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium reported a draft sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome. Since then, the international collaboration has worked to convert this draft into a genome sequence with high accuracy and nearly complete coverage. Here, we report the result of this finishing process. The current genome sequence (Build 35) contains 2.85 billion nucleotides interrupted by only 341 gaps. It covers ∼99% of the euchromatic genome and is accurate to an error rate of ∼1 event per 100,000 bases. Many of the remaining euchromatic gaps are associated with segmental duplications and will require focused work with new methods. The near-complete sequence, the first for a vertebrate, greatly improves the precision of biological analyses of the human genome including studies of gene number, birth and death. Notably, the human enome seems to encode only 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The genome sequence reported here should serve as a firm foundation for biomedical research in the decades ahead