3,916 research outputs found

    Plant Sterol-Poor Diet Is Associated with Pro-Inflammatory Lipid Mediators in the Murine Brain

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    Plant sterols (PSs) cannot be synthesized in mammals and are exclusively diet-derived. PSs cross the blood-brain barrier and may have anti-neuroinflammatory effects. Obesity is linked to lower intestinal uptake and blood levels of PSs, but its effects in terms of neuroinflammation—if any—remain unknown. We investigated the effect of high-fat diet-induced obesity on PSs in the brain and the effects of the PSs campesterol and -sitosterol on in vitro microglia activation. Sterols (cholesterol, precursors, PSs) and polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived lipid mediators were measured in the food, blood, liver and brain of C57BL/6J mice. Under a PSs-poor high-fat diet, PSs levels decreased in the blood, liver and brain (>50%). This effect was reversible after 2 weeks upon changing back to a chow diet. Inflammatory thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin D2 were inversely correlated to campesterol and -sitosterol levels in all brain regions. PSs content was determined post mortem in human cortex samples as well. In vitro, PSs accumulate in lipid rafts isolated from SIM-A9 microglia cell membranes. In summary, PSs levels in the blood, liver and brain were associated directly with PSs food content and inversely with BMI. PSs dampen pro-inflammatory lipid mediators in the brain. The identification of PSs in the human cortex in comparable concentration ranges implies the relevance of our findings for humans

    Plant Sterol-Poor Diet Is Associated with Pro-Inflammatory Lipid Mediators in the Murine Brain

    No full text
    Plant sterols (PSs) cannot be synthesized in mammals and are exclusively diet-derived. PSs cross the blood-brain barrier and may have anti-neuroinflammatory effects. Obesity is linked to lower intestinal uptake and blood levels of PSs, but its effects in terms of neuroinflammation—if any—remain unknown. We investigated the effect of high-fat diet-induced obesity on PSs in the brain and the effects of the PSs campesterol and -sitosterol on in vitro microglia activation. Sterols (cholesterol, precursors, PSs) and polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived lipid mediators were measured in the food, blood, liver and brain of C57BL/6J mice. Under a PSs-poor high-fat diet, PSs levels decreased in the blood, liver and brain (>50%). This effect was reversible after 2 weeks upon changing back to a chow diet. Inflammatory thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin D2 were inversely correlated to campesterol and -sitosterol levels in all brain regions. PSs content was determined post mortem in human cortex samples as well. In vitro, PSs accumulate in lipid rafts isolated from SIM-A9 microglia cell membranes. In summary, PSs levels in the blood, liver and brain were associated directly with PSs food content and inversely with BMI. PSs dampen pro-inflammatory lipid mediators in the brain. The identification of PSs in the human cortex in comparable concentration ranges implies the relevance of our findings for humans

    Sexual behavior and self-declaration of sexual orientation among people 18–64 years in Brazil: results from the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey, 2013 and the National Health Survey, 2019

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    Abstract Background Population surveys involving the monitoring of high-risk sexual behavior have been recognized as important public health tools to control the HIV epidemic and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods Using data from the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey (PCAP-2013) and from the National Health Survey (PNS-2019), indicators of sexual behavior were compared according to sociodemographic characteristics among individuals aged 18–64 years, including size (%) estimates of men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW). Specifically, the PNS-2019 prevalence estimates of homosexual, bisexual, heterosexual males and females were compared with those from the PCAP-2013. To compare PCAP and PNS proportional distributions, the Pearson's chi-square test, adjusted by the Rao-Scott’s correction, was applied. Results Size (%) estimates of MSM and WSW obtained by direct questions from the PCAP-2013, showed higher homosexuality prevalence estimates than those resulting from the PNS-2019 self-declared sexual orientation. Significant differences were found between the MSM proportions according to the PCAP-2013 (3.7%; 95% CI 3.1–4.4%) and to the PNS-2019 (2.2%; 95% CI 1.9–2.5), and between the WSW proportions (4.6%; 95% CI 4.0–5.4%) and (2.1%; 95% CI 1.8–2.4), respectively. Results from both surveys showed MSM and WSW prevalence estimates increase with educational level, decrease with age, and is larger among people who do not live with partner, live in urban areas and in state capitals. Regarding condom use at last sexual intercourse, no differences between the PCAP-2013 and the PNS-2019 estimates were found at the national level, but significant improvements were found for MSM, people aged 18–24 and 25–34 years, and individuals not living with a partner. Conclusions The underestimation of MSM and WSW prevalence by self-declared sexual orientation suggests that sexual minorities face many difficulties related to disclosing their sexuality and reinforces the importance of developing public health interventions for changing population attitudes and promoting sexual orientation disclosure. Moreover, the low use of condoms in both surveys (PCAP-2013 and PNS-2019) carried out 6 years apart highlights the need of public policies to expand prevention strategies for HIV infection and other STIs

    Prevalence of trachoma in the non-indigenous Baixo Jaguaribe micro-region, Ceara State, Northeast Brazil

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    Programa de Apoio Ă  PĂłs-Graduação; CAPESFederal University of CearĂĄ. School of Medicine. Postgraduate Program of Public Health. Fortaleza, CE, Brazil / Municipal Secretary of Health. Russas, CE, Brazil.Federal University of CearĂĄ. School of Medicine. Postgraduate Program of Public Health. Fortaleza, CE, Brazil / Federal University of CearĂĄ. School of Medicine. Department of Community Health. Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.Federal University of CearĂĄ. School of Medicine. Postgraduate Program of Public Health. Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.State University of CearĂĄ. Master's Degree in Child and Adolescent Health. Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.State University of CearĂĄ. Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.Ministry of Health. Secretary of Health Surveillance. BrasĂ­lia, DF, Brazil.MinistĂ©rio da SaĂșde. Secretaria de VigilĂąncia em SaĂșde e Ambiente. Instituto Evandro Chagas. Ananindeua, PA, Brasil.MinistĂ©rio da SaĂșde. Secretaria de VigilĂąncia em SaĂșde e Ambiente. Instituto Evandro Chagas. Ananindeua, PA, Brasil.Federal University of CearĂĄ. School of Medicine. Postgraduate Program of Public Health. Fortaleza, CE, Brazil / Secretary of Health of the State of CearĂĄ. Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.Federal University of CearĂĄ. School of Medicine. Postgraduate Program of Public Health. Fortaleza, CE, Brazil / Federal University of CearĂĄ. School of Medicine. Department of Community Health. Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.Federal University of CearĂĄ. Institute of Culture and Art. Fortaleza, CE, CearĂĄ, Brazil.Federal University of CearĂĄ. School of Pharmacy, Dentistry and Nursing. Department of Nursing. Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.Federal University of CearĂĄ. School of Medicine. Postgraduate Program of Public Health. Fortaleza, CE, Brazil / Federal University of CearĂĄ. School of Medicine. Department of Community Health. Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.Background: The aim of the current study was to estimate the population prevalence of trachoma in non-indigenous populations in the Baixo Jaguaribe micro-region, in the state of CearĂĄ, northeast region of Brazil, 2021–2022. Methods: A population-based prevalence survey focusing on detecting cases of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1−9 y and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) ‘unknown to the health system’ in people aged ≄15 y, was conducted in rural areas of the Baixo Jaguaribe micro-region in the state of CearĂĄ. Indigenous populations will be further researched. Results: There was no detection of cases of TF and TT. In 900 households, 2234 people were examined. In the Baixo Jaguaribe micro-region, females (54.6%; 1219/2234) and the mixed/Pardo-Brazilian ethnicity (68.1%; 1521/2234) predominated. The most commonly reported educational level was elementary and middle school (41.8%; 702/1679). In 56.2% (506/900) of households, there was a source of water within the household. The monthly income range of 50%−100% of the minimum wage predominated in the families of the Baixo Jaguaribe micro-region (43.1%; 388/900). Conclusions: Although no cases of TF and TT were detected in the Baixo Jaguaribe micro-region in the state of CearĂĄ during the study period, considering the historical endemicity, we emphasise the need for monitoring and sustainability of surveillance actions in areas at risk for trachoma, common contexts for neglected populations

    The Importance of Hyperspectral Soil Albedo Information for Improving Earth System Model Projections

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    Abstract Earth system models (ESMs) typically simplify the representation of land surface spectral albedo to two values, which correspond to the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm) and the near infrared (NIR, 700–2,500 nm) spectral bands. However, the availability of hyperspectral observations now allows for a more direct retrieval of ecological parameters and reduction of uncertainty in surface reflectance. To investigate sensitivity and quantify biases of incorporating hyperspectral albedo information into ESMs, we examine how shortwave soil albedo affects surface radiative forcing and simulations of the carbon and water cycles. Results reveal that the use of two broadband values to represent soil albedo can introduce systematic radiative‐forcing differences compared to a hyperspectral representation. Specifically, we estimate soil albedo biases of ±0.2 over desert areas, which can result in spectrally integrated radiative forcing divergences of up to 30 W m−2, primarily due to discrepancies in the blue (404–504 nm) and far‐red (702–747 nm) regions. Furthermore, coupled land‐atmosphere simulations indicate a significant difference in net solar flux at the top of the atmosphere (>3.3 W m−2), which can impact global energy fluxes, rainfall, temperature, and photosynthesis. Finally, simulations show that considering the hyperspectrally resolved soil reflectance leads to increased maximum daily temperatures under current and future CO2 concentrations

    Towards early response to desert locust swarming in eastern Africa by estimating timing of hatching

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    Desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) plagues threaten agricultural production, food security and the environment across Africa, the Middle East, and Southwest Asia. Control methods targeting adult desert locusts present significant challenges and financial costs. Recognizing this, we developed a ground-breaking fuzzy set Mamdani type inference model that provides an innovative solution for early warning alerts. The model aids in predicting the juvenile stages of locust development, thereby preventing wide-scale locust swarming and mitigating its extensive damages and socioeconomic costs. The novelty of our approach lies in our unique application of environmental variables relevant for locust breeding to estimate the timing and location of desert locust hatching. Additionally, we improved the algorithmic handling of these variables, with localized desert locust bands data used as a proxy for hatching timing with a temporal offset of 35 days. The model's boundary conditions were determined using a training area in Sudan, where comprehensive ground data was available. This rule set was subsequently applied to Turkana County in Kenya, a data-scarce region, demonstrating the model's applicability and success in different contexts. The model's accuracy, assessed by data from the Sudan training site, demonstrated a remarkable score of 82% for true predictions. Furthermore, the model correctly identified the months of highest hatching probabilities in Turkana during 2020, demonstrating its real-world effectiveness and practical value. A correlation analysis affirmed that hatching was associated with increases in chlorophyll levels and precipitation accumulations. Our study marks a significant advancement in predicting the timing of hatching using fuzzy logic in data-scarce environments. By operationalizing more targeted early responses to desert locust infestations, our model facilitates more effective locust control. This study stands as an important contribution to locust management strategies, with substantial implications for agricultural production and food security in affected regions

    Postulates and Proposals of Members of the Polish Government-in-Exile for Poland’s Economic Security in the Context of the Reconstruction of the State in 1944–1945: Selected Examples

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    The article aims to indicate selected, postulated directions of Poland’s economic recovery in the early years after World War II, considering the contribution made by the Polish Government-in-Exile (Government of the Republic of Poland in Exile). The analysis includes a query of archival documents from 1944–1945 and a review of scientific literature. The thesis has been put forward that the substantive developments from the years 1944–1945 prepared by the Government of the Republic of Poland in Exile may constitute a valuable cognitive source for the analysis of possible directions of reconstruction and development of the Polish economy after the destruction caused by the events of World War II. It has been shown that the Government of the Republic of Poland in Exile created numerous studies on the economic recovery of the country after World War II, even before the armed conflict formally ended. Many of the valuable guidelines referred to the reconstruction and development of the coal mining industry, oil industry, and forest management
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