21 research outputs found

    Universal Properties of Ferroelectric Domains

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    Basing on Ginzburg-Landau approach we generalize the Kittel theory and derive the interpolation formula for the temperature evolution of a multi-domain polarization profile P(x,z). We resolve the long-standing problem of the near-surface polarization behavior in ferroelectric domains and demonstrate the polarization vanishing instead of usually assumed fractal domain branching. We propose an effective scaling approach to compare the properties of different domain-containing ferroelectric plates and films.Comment: Phys. Rev. Lett. to be publishe

    BMJ Open

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    Introduction Guidelines for the treatment of steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) and frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) are lacking. Given the substantial impact of SDNS/FRNS on quality of life, strategies aiming to provide long-term remission while minimising treatment side effects are needed. Several studies confirm that rituximab is effective in preventing early relapses in SDNS/FRNS; however, the long-term relapse rate remains high (~70% at 2 years). This trial will assess the association of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIgs) to rituximab in patients with SDNS/FRNS and inform clinicians on whether IVIg’s immunomodulatory properties can alter the course of the disease and reduce the use of immunosuppressive drugs and their side effects. Methods and analysis We conduct an open-label multicentre, randomised, parallel group in a 1:1 ratio, controlled, superiority trial to assess the safety and efficacy of a single infusion of rituximab followed by IVIg compared with rituximab alone in childhood-onset FRNS/SDNS. The primary outcome is the occurrence of first relapse within 24 months. Patients are allocated to receive either rituximab alone (375 mg/m²) or rituximab followed by IVIg, which includes an initial Ig dose of 2 g/kg, followed by 1.5 g/kg injections once a month for the following 5 months (maximum dose: 100 g). Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the ethics committee (Comité de Protection des Personnes) of Ouest I and authorised by the French drug regulatory agency (Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé). Results of the primary study and the secondary aims will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications

    Renormalizable Group Field Theory beyond melons: an example in rank four

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    We prove the renormalizability of a gauge-invariant, four-dimensional GFT model on SU(2), whose defining interactions correspond to necklace bubbles (found also in the context of new large-N expansions of tensor models), rather than melonic ones, which are not renormalizable in this case. The respective scaling of different interactions in the vicinity of the Gaussian fixed point is determined by the renormalization group itself. This is possible because of the appropriate notion of canonical dimension of the GFT coupling constants takes into account the detailed combinatorial structure of the individual interaction terms. This is one more instance of the peculiarity (and greater mathematical richness) of GFTs with respect to ordinary local quantum field theories. We also explore the renormalization group flow of the model at the non-perturbative level, using functional renormalization group methods, and identify a non-trivial fixed point in various truncations. This model is expected to have a similar structure of divergences as the GFT models of 4d quantum gravity, thus paving the way to more detailed investigations on them

    Symmetry-Induced Deformation and Reconstructive Phase Transformation in Metal-Oxide Interface : The Fe (001) example

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    A model is proposed for the structural transformation and corresponding induced deformation in physical three-dimensional interface of the metal-oxide system. The thermodynamical and elastic state of the system is described by the Landau-Ginzbourg free energy. Calculated theoretical phase diagram shows several different types of isothermal growth processes. The model is applied to the case of the oxidation of the (001) Fe surface

    Functional renormalization group for the U

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