464 research outputs found

    Competing risks regression for clustered data

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    A population average regression model is proposed to assess the marginal effects of covariates on the cumulative incidence function when there is dependence across individuals within a cluster in the competing risks setting. This method extends the Fine–Gray proportional hazards model for the subdistribution to situations, where individuals within a cluster may be correlated due to unobserved shared factors. Estimators of the regression parameters in the marginal model are developed under an independence working assumption where the correlation across individuals within a cluster is completely unspecified. The estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal, and variance estimation may be achieved without specifying the form of the dependence across individuals. A simulation study evidences that the inferential procedures perform well with realistic sample sizes. The practical utility of the methods is illustrated with data from the European Bone Marrow Transplant Registry

    Autologous stem cell transplantation in adult patients with intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission and no detectable minimal residual disease. A comparative retrospective study with haploidentical transplants of the global committee and the ALWP of the EBMT.

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    In patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) of intermediate-risk (IR) in first remission (CR1) with no measurable residual disease (MRD negative), the choice of the best consolidation is questionable. 1122 adult patients from 196 centers, transplanted in 2010-21 were analyzed: 547 received an autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and 575 a Haploidentical donor transplant. Because of a significant interaction, comparisons were done separately for patients with wild-type FLT3 (FLT3-wt) and FLT3-ITD mutation (FLT3-ITD). In FLT3-wt patients, haploidentical transplants had two year lower relapse incidence (RI) (16.9% versus 32.6%; HR = 0.40, p < 0.001), higher NRM higher (17.2% vs 3.5%; HR = 7.02, p < 0.001), similar LFS (65.9% vs 63.8%; p = 0.37) and lower OS (73.2% vs 80.6%; HR = 1.69, p = 0.018). In FLT3-ITD patients, haploidentical transplants had two year lower RI (8.2% vs 47.8%; HR = 0.14, p < 0.001) higher NRM (20.2% vs 5.6%; HR = 3.43, p = 0.002), better LFS (71.5% vs 46.6%; HR = 0.53, p = 0.007) and similar OS (73.5% vs 61.9%; p = 0.44). In IR AML patients with FLT3-wt in MRD negative CR1, autologous stem cell transplantation is a valid option, while in patients with FLT3-ITD, haploidentical transplant is better. Whether autologous transplantation is superior to chemotherapy in FLT3-wt patients and the role of maintenance therapy with FLT3 inhibitors remain to be studied

    Outcome of Children Developing Grade III-IV Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

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    Acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) remains one of the major causes of procedure-related morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Information on the outcome of pediatric patients experiencing this complication is limited. We conducted a retrospective registry-based analysis on children who developed grade III-IV acute GVHD and were reported to the European Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) registry. Included in the study were children below age of 18 years who were transplanted between 2004 and 2016 (n=28109). Of these children, 1968 experienced grade III-IV acute GvHD: 1370 were had malignancies, while 598 were affected by a non-malignant disorder (NMD). Median year at HSCT was 2009 for patients with malignancies and 2010 for patients with NMD. In this latter group, as expected, the median age at HSCT was lower (5.8 years), in comparison with those affected by malignancies (9 years). The donor was an HLA-identical sibling in 576 cases and an unrelated donor in 895 cases. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) was employed in 282 cases, while a relative other than a compatible sibling in 215 cases. Overall, 1075 patients were given bone marrow (BM), while 598 received peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). A fully myeloablative conditioning regimen has been employed in 94% of patients with malignancies in comparison with 75% of children with NMD. As a post-transplant pharmacological GvHD prophylaxis, a different strategy of immune suppressive treatment have been used: it consisted in the association of Cyclosporine-A (CSA) and Methotrexate in 40%, CSA alone in 30% and CSA plus Mycophenolate mofetil in 10% of patients. Grade III aGvHD occurred in 1383 patients (70%), while grade IV aGvHD was diagnosed in 585 (30%). Chronic GvHD occurred in 48.2% and 49.3% of patients with malignant and NMD, respectively. It was extensive in 262 (26.8%) patients with malignancies and in 111 (28%) children affected by NMD. Within patients with malignancies, the 2-year Kaplan-Meyer probability of overall survival (OS) was 65.7% (confidence interval 95, 63 - 68.4). In this group, the cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 23.1%. Notably, the occurrence of GvHD was responsible of death in 228 patients (CI 14.5%). In the NMD cohort, the 2-year Kaplan-Meyer probability of overall survival (OS) was 67.8% (confidence interval 95, 63.8 - 71.9). Sixty-one patients died to GvHD, being the 2-year cumulative incidence of GvHD-related mortality 19%. These data indicate that the occurrence of grade III-IV aGVHD is associated with a dismal outcome also in pediatric patients. The main cause of fatality is represented by NRM, while leukemia recurrence affected outcome of a lower number of children. Thus, strategies aimed at preventing this immune-mediated complication and at optimizing its treatment are desirable

    Long term impact of hyperleukocytosis in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation : An analysis from the acute leukemia working party of the EBMT

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    Up to 20% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients present initially with hyperleukocytosis, placing them at increased risk for early mortality during induction. Yet, it is unknown whether hyperleukocytosis still retains prognostic value for AML patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Furthermore, it is unknown whether hyperleukocytosis holds prognostic significance when modern molecular markers such as FLT3-ITD and NPM1 are accounted for. To determine whether hyperleukocytosis is an independent prognostic factor influencing outcome in transplanted AML patients we performed a retrospective analysis using the registry of the acute leukemia working party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. A cohort of 357 patients with hyperleukocytosis (159 patients with white blood count [WBC] 50 K-100 K, 198 patients with WBC >= 100 K) was compared to 918 patients without hyperleukocytosis. Patients with hyperleukocytosis were younger, had an increased rate of favorable risk cytogenetics, and more likely to be FLT3 and NPM1 mutated. In multivariate analysis, hyperleukocytosis was independently associated with increased relapse incidence (hazard ratio [HR] of 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.12; P = .004), decreased leukemia-free survival (HR of 1.38, 95% CI, 1.07-1.78; P = .013), and inferior overall survival (HR of 1.4, 95% CI, 1.07-1.84; P = .013). Hyperleukocytosis retains a significant prognostic role for AML patients undergoing HSCT.Peer reviewe

    Graft-Versus-Leukemia Effect after Haplo-Identical Stem Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide in Patients with AML- No Association with Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD): A Study on Behalf of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of EBMT.

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    Introduction Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT) is curative therapy in AML by providing intensive chemotherapy and enhancing a graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. The GVL effect is usually closely associated with GVHD. The use of haploidentical SCT (haploSCT) is rapidly increasing due to the introduction of non-T depleted methods, in particular with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy), with similar outcomes as following other donor sources. There is no data whether GVL after haploSCT is associated with GVHD as in matched donor SCT. Methods We assessed the impact of acute and chronic GVHD on SCT outcomes following non-T depleted haploSCT with PTCy, by using a series of landmark analyses. Results The study included 605 patients with AML in CR1 (73%) or CR2 (27%) after haploSCT with PTCy, given during the years 2009-2016. The median age was 53 years (18-76). The overall rate of acute GVHD grade II-IV and III-IV was 28.4% and 8.0%, respectively. The rates of chronic GVHD all grades and extensive were 32.7% and 12.3%, respectively. The 2-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 59.9%. 509 patients were alive and leukemia-free 100 days after SCT; 366 had no prior acute GVHD at this landmark, 107 had acute GVHD grade II and 36 had grade III-IV. The subsequent relapse rate was 20.3%, 18.3% and 11.9%, respectively (P=0.60). The subsequent non-relapse mortality (NRM) rate was 10.3%, 19.0% and 35.7%, respectively (P Conclusions Acute and chronic GVHD of any grade were not associated with subsequent relapse. Acute GVHD grade III-IV and extensive chronic GVHD were associated with higher NRM and lower LFS. GVL is thus not closely associated with GVHD after non T-depleted haploSCT with PTCy. Future novel strategies for prevention of significant GVHD are warranted

    The Role of Donor Selection for a Second Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with AML Relapsing after a First Transplant; A Study on Behalf of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of EBMT

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    Abstract Introduction. Recurrent disease is the major cause of treatment failure after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients with AML. Second SCT (SCT2) is a valid treatment option in this setting but outcome is relatively poor. Haplo-identical (haplo) SCT is increasingly used over the last decade due to the introduction of non T-depleted methods. Prior studies have shown similar outcome when using the same or different HLA-matched donor for SCT2. However, there is relatively limited data on the use of haplo-donors. Methods and Results. The study included 556 patients with AML relapsing after a first allogeneic SCT (SCT1) given in CR1 from an HLA-matched sibling (sib, n= 294) or a matched unrelated donor (MUD, n=262) and given SCT2 during the years 2006-2016. The median age at SCT2 was 46 years (20-73). 247 patients were in CR2 (44%) and 309 had active leukemia (55%) at the time of SCT2. The conditioning regimen was myeloablative (MAC, 66%) or reduced-intensity (RIC, 34%) for SCT1, and 41% and 59%, respectively for SCT2. 19% of all patients had acute GVHD grade II-IV and 20% had chronic GVHD after SCT1 and before relapse. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on the donor selected for SCT2; 1) same donor (n=163, sib/sib-112, MUD/MUD-51), 2) different HLA-matched donor (n=305, sib/different sib-44, sib/MUD-93, MUD/ different MUD- 168), 3) haplo-donor (n=88, sib/haplo-45, MUD/haplo-43). All haploSCT were non T-depleted. There were some differences between the 3 groups in the timing of relapse and SCT2. The median time from SCT1 to relapse was similar; 10.6, 12.5 and 9.3 months, respectively (P=0.14). However, the median time from relapse to SCT2 was shorter for the same donor group; 2.8, 3.7 and 3.5 months, respectively (P<0.001) and the median time between SCT1 and SCT2 was longer for the different donor group; 14.3, 17.5 and 13.8 months, respectively (P=0.03). There were no difference between the groups in patient age, gender, disease status at SCT2 or conditioning regimen intensity for SCT1 or SCT2. The 2-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) after SCT2 was 23.5%, 23.7% and 21.8%, respectively (unadjusted P=0.30). Multivariate analysis of factors predicting relapse after SCT2 showed no effect of the second donor type, hazard ratio (HR) 0.96 (P=0.83) and 1.20 (P=0.47) for different matched donor and haplo-donor compared to the same donor, respectively. MUD donor in SCT1, CR2 compared to active disease and chronic GVHD after SCT1 were associated with reduced relapse risk after SCT2, HR 0.70 (P=0.02), 0.60 (P=0.001) and 0.66 (P=0.03), respectively. Age, gender, conditioning regimen used for SCT1 or SCT2 and time to first relapse or to SCT2 did not predict relapse rate after SCT2. The second donor type did predict for non-relapse mortality (NRM) after SCT2; HR 1.26 (P=0.41) and 2.18 (P=0.02) for different matched donor and haplo-donor compared to same donor, respectively. Advanced age and MAC in SCT1 also predicted for NRM, HR 1.40 (P<0.001) and 0.61 (P=0.04), respectively. The second donor also predicted for LFS after SCT2; HR 1.05 (P=0.77) and 1.55 (P=0.03), respectively. Advanced age and SCT2 in CR2 also predicted for LFS; HR 1.11 (P=0.06) and 0.66 (P=0.002), respectively. In all, there were no differences between same or different matched donors in SCT2 outcomes, but haploSCT2 was associated with higher NRM and lower LFS. Significant interaction was detected between second donor type and conditioning for SCT1. The inferior outcome after SCT2 with a haplo-donor was limited to patients given MAC in SCT1. In this setting it was associated with higher relapse and NRM rates and lower LFS, HR 1.86 (P=0.05), 3.40 (P=0.005) and 2.25 (P=0.001), respectively. However, there was no difference in any of these outcomes in patients given RIC in SCT1. Unadjusted analysis showed that in patients with no chronic GVHD after SCT1, haploSCT2 was associated with lower LFS, due to higher NRM. However, LFS was similar in patients with prior chronic GVHD. Multivariate analysis was not feasible due to low patient numbers. Conclusions. Second SCT with the same donor or different matched donor is associated with similar outcomes in patients with relapsed AML after a first SCT. However, SCT2 with a haplo-donor is associated with higher NRM and lower LFS, mostly in patients given MAC in SCT1. Prior chronic GVHD after SCT1 is associated with lower relapse rate after SCT2. The role of prior chronic GVHD in donor selection should be further investigated. Disclosures Finke: Medac: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: travel grants, Research Funding; Neovii: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: travel grants, Research Funding; Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: travel grants, Research Funding; Riemser: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding. Gramatzki:Affimed: Research Funding. Stelljes:Novartis: Honoraria; Amgen: Honoraria; JAZZ: Honoraria; MSD: Consultancy; Pfizer: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding. Stoelzel:Neovii: Speakers Bureau. Mohty:MaaT Pharma: Consultancy, Honoraria
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