57 research outputs found

    Binding of CD157 protein to fibronectin regulates cell adhesion and spreading

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    CD157/BST-1 behaves both as an ectoenzyme and signaling receptor and is an important regulator of leukocyte trafficking and ovarian cancer progression. However, the molecular interactions underpinning the role of CD157 in these processes remain obscure. The biological functions of CD157 and its partnership with members of the integrin family prompted us to assume the existence of a direct interaction between CD157 and an unknown component of the extracellular matrix. Using solid-phase binding assays and surface plasmon resonance analysis, we demonstrated that CD157 binds fibronectin with high affinity within its heparin-binding domains 1 and 2. Furthermore, we found that CD157 binds to other extracellular matrix proteins containing heparin-binding domains. Finally, we proved that the CD157-fibronectin interaction occurs with living cells, where it elicits CD157-mediated cell responses. Indeed, knockdown of CD157 in Met-5A mesothelial cells changed their morphology and cytoskeleton organization and attenuated the activation of intracellular signaling pathways triggered by fibronectin. This led to impaired cell spreading and adhesion to selected extracellular matrix proteins. Collectively, these findings indicate a central role of CD157 in cell-extracellular matrix interactions and make CD157 an attractive therapeutic target in inflammation and cancer

    Overexpression of CD157 contributes to epithelial ovarian cancer progression by promoting mesenchymal differentiation

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    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is an aggressive tumor often diagnosed at an advanced stage, when there is little or no prospect of cure. Despite advances in surgical and chemotherapeutic strategies, only marginal improvements in patient outcome have been obtained. Hence, unraveling the biological mechanisms underpinning EOC progression is critical for improving patients’ survival. Recently, we reported that CD157 (an ectoenzyme regulating leukocyte diapedesis) is expressed in EOC and that high expression of the molecule is negatively correlated with the disease outcome in patients. Here, we demonstrate that forced overexpression of CD157 in OVCAR-3, TOV-21G, A2780 and OV-90 ovarian cancer cell lines promotes morphological and phenotypic changes characterized by disruption of intercellular junctions, downregulation of epithelial markers and upregulation of mesenchymal ones. These changes in cell shape and phenotype bring to reduced sensitivity to anoikis, increased anchorage-independent growth, cell motility and mesothelial invasion. Conversely, knockdown of CD157 in OV-90 and OC314 cells reverts the mesenchymal phenotype and reduces the cells’ migratory potential. Transcriptome profiling analysis highlighted 378 significantly differentially expressed genes, representing the signature of CD157-overexpressing OVCAR-3 and OV-90 cells. The modulation of selected genes translates into alteration of protein expression that give cells a highly malignant phenotype. The overall picture deduced from the analysis of the modulated transcripts is that high expression of CD157 strengthens a number of biological processes favoring tumor progression (including development and cell motility), and weakens several biological processes hindering tumor progression (such as apoptosis, cell death and response to stress). Together, these findings implicate CD157 in the progression of EOC to metastatic disease and suggest that CD157 may represent a valuable therapeutic target

    Generation of potent neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against cytomegalovirus infection from immune B cells

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) generated as a result of the immune response are likely to be the most effective therapeutic antibodies, particularly in the case of infectious diseases against which the immune response is protective.</p> <p>Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an ubiquitous opportunistic virus that is the most serious pathogenic agent in transplant patients. The available therapeutic armamentarium (e.g. HCMV hyperimmune globulins or antivirals) is associated with severe side effects and the emergence of drug-resistant strains; therefore, neutralizing human mAb may be a decisive alternative in the prevention of primary and re-activated HCMV infections in these patients.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to generate neutralizing mAb against HCMV from the immunological repertoire of immune donors. To this aim, we designed an efficient technology relying on two discrete and sequential steps: first, human B-lymphocytes are stimulated with TLR9-agonists and IL-2; second, after both additives are removed, the cells are infected with EBV. Using this strategy we obtained 29 clones secreting IgG neutralizing the HCMV infectivity; four among these were further characterized. All of the mAbs neutralize the infection in different combinations of HCMV strains and target cells, with a potency ~20 fold higher than that of the HCMV hyperimmune globulins, currently used in transplant recipients. Recombinant human monoclonal IgG1 suitable as a prophylactic or therapeutic tool in clinical applications has been generated.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The technology described has proven to be more reproducible, efficient and rapid than previously reported techniques, and can be adopted at low overall costs by any cell biology laboratory for the development of fully human mAbs for immunotherapeutic uses.</p

    CD157 enhances malignant pleural mesothelioma aggressiveness and predicts poor clinical outcome.

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    Malignant mesothelioma is a deadly tumor whose diagnosis and treatment remain very challenging. There is an urgent need to advance our understanding of mesothelioma biology and to identify new molecular markers for improving management of patients. CD157 is a membrane glycoprotein linked to ovarian cancer progression and mesenchymal differentiation. The common embryonic origin of ovarian epithelial cells and mesothelial cells and the evident similarities between ovarian and mesothelial cancer prompted us to investigate the biological role and clinical significance of CD157 in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). CD157 mRNA and protein were detected in four of nine MPM cell lines of diverse histotype and in 85.2% of MPM surgical tissue samples (32/37 epithelioid; 37/44 biphasic). CD157 expression correlated with clinical aggressiveness in biphasic MPM. Indeed, high CD157 was a negative prognostic factor and an independent predictor of poor survival for patients with biphasic MPM by multivariate survival analysis (HR = 2.433, 95% CI 1.120-5.284; p = 0.025). In mesothelioma cell lines, CD157 gain (in CD157-negative cells) or knockdown (in CD157-positive cells) affected cell growth, migration, invasion and tumorigenicity, most notably in biphasic MPM cell lines. In these cells, CD157 expression was associated with increased activation of the mTOR signaling pathway, resulting in decreased platinum sensitivity. Moreover, a trend towards reduced survival was observed in patients with biphasic MPM receiving postoperative platinum-based chemotherapy. These findings indicate that CD157 is implicated in multiple aspects of MPM progression and suggest that CD157 expression could be used to stratify patients into different prognostic groups or to select patients that might benefit from particular chemotherapeutic approach
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