241 research outputs found

    Analysis of virulence genes in Escherichia coli isolated from grated cheese

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    This research aimed to verify the presence of virulence genes in strains of Escherichia coli isolated from grated cheese sold in farmers' markets of Cuiaba-MT, Brazil. Forty samples of this food were submitted for microbiological analysis and 22 (55%) tested positive for E. coli. Next, 64 strains of E. coli were isolated from the positive samples and screened by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of the genes encoding the following virulence factors: stx1 and stx2 (verotoxin types 1 and 2), eae (intimin), lt1 (heat-labile toxin type 1), st1 (heat-stable toxin type 1), cnf1 and cnf2 (cytotoxic necrozing factor types 1 and 2), and cdtB (cytolethal distending toxin). All the isolates were negative for the genes stx1, stx2, eae, lt1, st1, cnf1, and cdtB, and five strains (7.81%) were positive for cnf2. A low prevalence of E. coli positive for virulence factors associated with the pathogenesis of diarrhoea was observed in this study. However, the presence of CNF-2 producing strains and the possibility of occurrence and scattering of other virulence factors that were not surveyed in the work indicate the risk related to the consumption of grated cheese from farmers' markets.31110610

    Prevalence of enterotoxigenic and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in pigs slaughtered in Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Introduction: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains in pigs slaughtered in abattoirs located in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Methodology: Intestinal samples from 74 animals were aseptically dissected and lumen content was plated on MacConkey agar. Confluent colonies from each plate were screened for the presence of ETEC and STEC strains by PCR assays. Results: It was verified that the prevalence of STEC and ETEC carriers was 1.35% and 9.46% respectively. One (1.35%) of the 74 samples tested was positive for the stx2 gene, and seven (9.46%) for st1, of which two (2.70%) were also positive for lt1. Conclusion: The results provided represent a benchmark for future research on pathogenic E. coli of porcine origin in Mato Grosso.5212312

    Rationale, design and methodology for Intraventricular Pressure Gradients Study: a novel approach for ventricular filling assessment in normal and falling hearts

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Intraventricular pressure gradients have been described between the base and the apex of the left ventricle during early diastolic ventricular filling, as well as, their increase after systolic and diastolic function improvement. Although, systolic gradients have also been observed, data are lacking on their magnitude and modulation during cardiac dysfunction. Furthermore, we know that segmental dysfunction interferes with the normal sequence of regional contraction and might be expected to alter the physiological intraventricular pressure gradients. The study hypothesis is that systolic and diastolic gradients, a marker of normal left ventricular function, may be related to physiological asynchrony between basal and apical myocardial segments and they can be attenuated, lost entirely, or even reversed when ventricular filling/emptying is impaired by regional acute ischemia or severe aortic stenosis.</p> <p>Methods/Design</p> <p><it>Animal Studies: </it>Six rabbits will be completely instrumented to measuring apex to outflow-tract pressure gradient and apical and basal myocardial segments lengthening changes at basal, afterloaded and ischemic conditions. Afterload increase will be performed by abruptly narrowing or occluding the ascending aorta during the diastole and myocardial ischemia will be induced by left coronary artery ligation, after the first diagonal branch.</p> <p><it>Patient Studies: </it>Patients between 65-80 years old (n = 12), both genders, with severe aortic stenosis referred for aortic valve replacement will be selected as eligible subjects. A high-fidelity pressure-volume catheter will be positioned through the ascending aorta across the aortic valve to measure apical and outflow-tract pressure before and after aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis. Peak and average intraventricular pressure gradients will be recorded as apical minus outflow-tract pressure and calculated during all diastolic and systolic phases of cardiac cycle.</p> <p>Discussion</p> <p>We expect to validate the application of our method to obtain intraventricular pressure gradients in animals and patients and to promote a methodology to better understand the ventricular relaxation and filling and their correlation with systolic function.</p

    The action of a multidisciplinary team in the nutritional care of critically ill patients

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    Hospitalized patients may have special nutrient requirements imposed by a combination of malnutrition and enhanced utilization of nutrients resulting from the disease process. Nutritional support, mainly during critical stages of disease, should be provided safely and effectively. Several studies have evaluated the paper of a multidisciplinary team in the administration of a nutritional therapy. Individually, the majority of these studies are underpowered to evaluate an effect on the quality of nutritional care. With the objective to identify problems inherent to the supply of nutritional support to hospitalized patients and verify the impact of the actions of a multidisciplinary team on the quality of these procedures, we analysed articles that have been published between 1980 and 2004 about the role of the action of multidisciplinary teams in the care and nutritional outcome of hospitalized patients, especially those undergoing intensive care. The terms used for the search were: multidisciplinary team, nutritional support, parenteral nutrition, enteral feeding, critically ill, intensive care unit, critically ill child. Of 130 studies, intially identified, just 24 were selected, of which 14 compared the standard of nutritional therapy with and without the presence of a multidisciplinary team. The inadequate supply of nutrients, infection and metabolic complications and the excessive use of parenteral nutrition were the main problems detected in the supply of nutritional support to hospitalized patients. In the comparative studies, the presence of the multidisciplinary team improved the pattern of nutritional support, and reduced the incidence of complications and the costs.Pacientes hospitalizados podem ter necessidades nutricionais especiais em função da desnutrição e dos desequilíbrios metabólicos impostos pelas doenças. A terapia nutricional, principalmente nos estágios críticos das enfermidades, deve ser administrada de modo seguro e eficaz. Vários estudos têm avaliado o papel da equipe multidisciplinar na administração da terapia nutricional. Com o objetivo de identificar os problemas inerentes à administração da terapia nutricional em pacientes hospitalizados e verificar o impacto da atuação de uma equipe multidisciplinar na qualidade dos procedimentos, foi realizada uma revisão que analisou artigos publicados entre 1980 e 2004 sobre o papel da atuação de equipes multidisciplinares no cuidado e na evolução nutricional de pacientes hospitalizados, principalmente os que se encontravam sob cuidados intensivos. Os termos utilizados na pesquisa foram: multidisciplinary team, nutritional support, parente-ral nutrition, enteral feeding, critically ill, intensive care unit,critically ill child. Dos 130 estudos inicialmente identificados, foram selecionados 24, dos quais 14 compararam o padrão de terapia nutricional com e sem a presença da equipe multidisciplinar. Os principais problemas detectados na administração de terapia nutricional em pacientes hospitalizados foram a oferta inadequada de nutrientes, as complicações infecciosas e metabólicas e o uso excessivo de nutrição parenteral. Nos estudos comparativos, a presença da equipe multidisciplinar melhorou o padrão de oferta nutricional, reduziu a incidência de complicações e os custos.Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) Departamento de PediatriaHospital São Paulo Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos PediátricosHospital São Paulo Equipe Multidisciplinar de Terapia NutricionalUNIFESP, Depto. de PediatriaHospital São Paulo Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos PediátricosHospital São Paulo Equipe Multidisciplinar de Terapia NutricionalSciEL

    Experience with model-based performance, reliability and adaptability assessment of a complex industrial architecture

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    In this paper, we report on our experience with the application of validated models to assess performance, reliability, and adaptability of a complex mission critical system that is being developed to dynamically monitor and control the position of an oil-drilling platform. We present real-time modeling results that show that all tasks are schedulable. We performed stochastic analysis of the distribution of task execution time as a function of the number of system interfaces. We report on the variability of task execution times for the expected system configurations. In addition, we have executed a system library for an important task inside the performance model simulator. We report on the measured algorithm convergence as a function of the number of vessel thrusters. We have also studied the system architecture adaptability by comparing the documented system architecture and the implemented source code. We report on the adaptability findings and the recommendations we were able to provide to the system’s architect. Finally, we have developed models of hardware and software reliability. We report on hardware and software reliability results based on the evaluation of the system architecture

    Ultrasound-assessed perirenal fat is related to increased ophthalmic artery resistance index in HIV-1 patients

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically changed the prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, with a significant decline in morbidity and mortality.</p> <p>Changes in body fat distribution are a common finding in individuals with HIV infection being treated with antiretrovirals, and this condition (collectively termed lipodystrophy syndrome) is associated with depletion of subcutaneous fat, increased triglycerides and insulin resistance. Obesity, particularly visceral obesity, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, estimating visceral fat distribution is important in identifying subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease.</p> <p>The aim of our study was to evaluate whether perirenal fat thickness (PRFT), a parameter of central obesity, is related to ophthalmic artery resistance index (OARI), an index of occlusive carotid artery disease in HIV-1 infected patients.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We enrolled 88 consecutive HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy for more than 12 months, in a prospective cohort study. Echographically measured PRFT and OARI, as well as serum metabolic parameters, were evaluated. PRFT and OARI were measured by 3.75 MHz convex and 7.5 MHz linear probe, respectively.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The means of PRFT and OARI in HIV-1-infected patients with visceral obesity was considerably higher than in patients without it (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Using the average OARI as the dependent variable, total serum cholesterol level, HDL, triglycerides, glycemia, sex, blood pressure, age and PRFT were independent factors associated with OARI. A PRFT of 6.1 mm was the most discriminatory value for predicting an OARI > 0.74 (sensitivity 78.9%, specificity 82.8%).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Our data indicate that ultrasound assessment of PRFT may have potential as a marker of increased endothelial damage with specific involvement of the ocular vascular region in HIV-1-infected patients.</p

    Elucidating the Role of the Complement Control Protein in Monkeypox Pathogenicity

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    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) causes a smallpox-like disease in humans. Clinical and epidemiological studies provide evidence of pathogenicity differences between two geographically distinct monkeypox virus clades: the West African and Congo Basin. Genomic analysis of strains from both clades identified a ∼10 kbp deletion in the less virulent West African isolates sequenced to date. One absent open reading frame encodes the monkeypox virus homologue of the complement control protein (CCP). This modulatory protein prevents the initiation of both the classical and alternative pathways of complement activation. In monkeypox virus, CCP, also known as MOPICE, is a ∼24 kDa secretory protein with sequence homology to this superfamily of proteins. Here we investigate CCP expression and its role in monkeypox virulence and pathogenesis. CCP was incorporated into the West African strain and removed from the Congo Basin strain by homologous recombination. CCP expression phenotypes were confirmed for both wild type and recombinant monkeypox viruses and CCP activity was confirmed using a C4b binding assay. To characterize the disease, prairie dogs were intranasally infected and disease progression was monitored for 30 days. Removal of CCP from the Congo Basin strain reduced monkeypox disease morbidity and mortality, but did not significantly decrease viral load. The inclusion of CCP in the West African strain produced changes in disease manifestation, but had no apparent effect on disease-associated mortality. This study identifies CCP as an important immuno-modulatory protein in monkeypox pathogenesis but not solely responsible for the increased virulence seen within the Congo Basin clade of monkeypox virus

    Clotrimazole Preferentially Inhibits Human Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation, Viability and Glycolysis

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    BACKGROUND: Clotrimazole is an azole derivative with promising anti-cancer effects. This drug interferes with the activity of glycolytic enzymes altering their cellular distribution and inhibiting their activities. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of clotrimazole on the growth pattern of breast cancer cells correlating with their metabolic profiles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three cell lines derived from human breast tissue (MCF10A, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) that present increasingly aggressive profiles were used. Clotrimazole induces a dose-dependent decrease in glucose uptake in all three cell lines, with K(i) values of 114.3±11.7, 77.1±7.8 and 37.8±4.2 µM for MCF10A, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, respectively. Furthermore, the drug also decreases intracellular ATP content and inhibits the major glycolytic enzymes, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase-1 and pyruvate kinase, especially in the highly metastatic cell line, MDA-MB-231. In this last cell lineage, clotrimazole attenuates the robust migratory response, an effect that is progressively attenuated in MCF-7 and MCF10A, respectively. Moreover, clotrimazole reduces the viability of breast cancer cells, which is more pronounced on MDA-MB-231. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Clotrimazole presents deleterious effects on two human breast cancer cell lines metabolism, growth and migration, where the most aggressive cell line is more affected by the drug. Moreover, clotrimazole presents little or no effect on a non-tumor human breast cell line. These results suggest, at least for these three cell lines studied, that the more aggressive the cell is the more effective clotrimazole is