18 research outputs found

    Virulence Factors IN Fungi OF Systemic Mycoses

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    High-frequency oscillations (>200 Hz) in the human non-parkinsonian subthalamic nucleus

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    The human basal ganglia, and in particular the subthalamic nucleus (STN), can oscillate at surprisingly high frequencies, around 300 Hz [G. Foffani, A. Priori, M. Egidi, P. Rampini, F. Tamma, E. Caputo, K.A. Moxon, S. Cerutti, S. Barbieri, 300-Hz subthalamic oscillations in Parkinson's disease, Brain 126 (2003) 2153-2163]. It has been proposed that these oscillations could contribute to the mechanisms of action of deep brain stimulation (DBS) [G. Foffani, A. Priori, Deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease can mimic the 300 Hz subthalamic rhythm, Brain 129 (2006) E59]. However, the physiological role of high-frequency STN oscillations is questionable, because they have been observed only in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and could therefore be secondary to the dopamine-depleted parkinsonian state. Here, we report high-frequency STN oscillations in the range of the 300-Hz rhythm during intraoperative microrecordings for DBS in an awake patient with focal dystonia as well as in a patient with essential tremor (ET). High-frequency STN oscillations are therefore not exclusively related to parkinsonian pathophysiology, but may represent a broader feature of human STN function

    A Model of Border-Ownership Coding in Early Vision

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    Linear Game Automata: Decidable Hierarchy Problems for Stripped-Down Alternating Tree Automata

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    For deterministic tree automata, classical hierarchies, like Mostowski-Rabin (or index) hierarchy, Borel hierarchy, or Wadge hierarchy, are known to be decidable. However, when it comes to non-deterministic tree automata, none of these hierarchies is even close to be understood. Here we make an attempt in paving the way towards a clear understanding of tree automata. We concentrate on the class of linear game automata (LGA), and prove within this new context, that all corresponding hierarchies mentioned above—Mostowski-Rabin, Borel, and Wadge—are decidable. The class LGA is obtained by taking linear tree automata with alternation restricted to the choice of path in the input tree. Despite their simplicity, LGA recognize sets of arbitrary high Borel rank. The actual richness of LGA is revealed by the height of their Wadge hierarchy: (ω^ω)^ω

    Flat counter automata almost everywhere

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    Abstract. This paper argues that flatness appears as a central notion in the verification of counter automata. A counter automaton is called flat when its control graph can be “replaced”, equivalently w.r.t. reachability, by another one with no nested loops. From a practical view point, we show that flatness is a necessary and sufficient condition for termination of accelerated symbolic model checking, a generic semi-algorithmic technique implemented in successful tools like FAST,LASH or TREX. From a theoretical view point, we prove that many known semilinear subclasses of counter automata are flat: reversal bounded counter machines, lossy vector addition systems with states, reversible Petri nets, persistent and conflict-free Petri nets, etc. Hence, for these subclasses, the semilinear reachability set can be computed using a uniform accelerated symbolic procedure (whereas previous algorithms were specifically designed for each subclass).

    Recurrent Long-Range Interactions in Early Vision

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    A general principle of cortical architecture is the bidirectional flow of information along feedforward and feedback connections. In the feedforward path, converging connections mainly define the feature detection characteristics of cells. The computational role of feedback connections, on the contrary, is largely unknown. Based on empirical findings we suggest that top-down feedback projections modulate activity of target cells in a context dependent manner. The context is represented by the spatial extension and direction of long-range connections. In this scheme, bottom-up activity which is consistent in a more global context is enhanced, inconsistent activity is suppressed. We present two instantiations of this general scheme having complementary functionality, namely a model of cortico-cortical V1--V2 interactions and a model of recurrent intracortical V1 interactions. The models both have long-range interactions for the representation of contour shapes and modulati..