5 research outputs found

    Effects of Gd 3+ doping on structural and dielectric properties of PZT (Zr:Ti=52:48) piezoceramics

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    The purpose of this research is to study the effect of doping Gd into Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 ceramics prepared by solid state reaction. X-ray diffraction patterns show that all PGZT samples are of tetragonal structure and the highest doping should be no more than 2¬†mole‚ÄČ% Gd at which the unreacted oxides start to appear. The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of PGZT's indicate that Gd 3+ can enter both A site of the perovskite structure instead of only A site as widely believed. The ESR peaks resonance shift towards low fields as the concentration is higher, which is due to the change in crystal field experienced by Gd 3+ ions. At x =0.001, 0.005 and 0.01 dopings, two sets of powder ESR signals arising from Gd 3+ (4f 7, spin¬†7/2) ions at A site. The first set shows some fine structure having strong absorption peaks centered at 76.26¬†mT (g= 8.550). The second is a seven-peak spectrum centered at 206.01¬†mT (g= 3.165), which belongs to the Gd 3+ ions at B sites. Furthermore, the overlapped ESR strong absorption peaks from 309.17¬†mT to 314.49¬†mT (g= 2.2818-2.1087) belong to Gd 3+ of unreacted Gd 2O 3. The local environments of Gd 3+ ions were verified from the calculated ESR spectra using appropriate spin Hamiltonian parameter, i.e. gyromagnetic tensor g, zero-field splitting D and hyperfine tensor A. Copyright EDP Sciences/Societ√† Italiana di Fisica/Springer-Verlag 2005