309 research outputs found

    Tight globally simple nonzero sum Heffter arrays and biembeddings

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    Square relative nonzero sum Heffter arrays, denoted by N H t ( n ; k ) NHt(n;k){\rm{N}}{{\rm{H}}}_{t}(n;k), have been introduced as a variant of the classical concept of Heffter array. An N H t ( n ; k ) NHt(n;k){\rm{N}}{{\rm{H}}}_{t}(n;k) is an n x n n×nn\times n partially filled array with elements in Z v Zv{{\mathbb{Z}}}_{v}, where v = 2 n k + t v=2nk+tv=2nk+t, whose rows and whose columns contain k kk filled cells, such that the sum of the elements in every row and column is different from 0 (modulo v vv) and, for every x is an element of Z v x∈Zvx\in {{\mathbb{Z}}}_{v} not belonging to the subgroup of order t tt, either x xx or - x −x-x appears in the array. In this paper we give direct constructions of square nonzero sum Heffter arrays with no empty cells, N H t ( n ; n ) NHt(n;n){\rm{N}}{{\rm{H}}}_{t}(n;n), for every n nn odd, when t tt is a divisor of n nn and when t is an element of { 2 , 2 n , n 2 , 2 n 2 } t∈{2,2n,n2,2n2}t\in \{2,2n,{n}{2},2{n}{2}\}. The constructed arrays have also the very restrictive property of being "globally simple"; this allows us to get new orthogonal path decompositions and new biembeddings of complete multipartite graphs

    An Extended Temperature Range ePCM Memory in 90-nm BCD for Smart Power Applications

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    This paper presents a temperature-robust embedded Phase-Change Memory (ePCM) with high cycling capability able to meet all the stringent specifications coming from the automotive environment and, more specifically, the used phase-change material (based on Ge-rich GST alloy) has been tuned to fit power ICs constraints. In order, to cope with the -40 degrees C to 175 degrees C operation requirements, a temperature-compensated write algorithm was conceived and specific circuits were added to render the statistical distribution of programming pulses equal at any temperature as it is required to obtain a uniform ageing of the cells thus ensuring an higher reliability after 100k cycling. Programming operation was optimized thanks to an improved program load that has been designed to compensate for the expected large power supply variations. Experimental characterization demonstrated a 16 ns access time over the whole temperature range

    Safety of the oral factor XIa inhibitor asundexian compared with apixaban in patients with atrial fibrillation (PACIFIC-AF). a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, dose-finding phase 2 study

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    Background: Direct-acting oral anticoagulant use for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation is limited by bleeding concerns. Asundexian, a novel, oral small molecule activated coagulation factor XIa (FXIa) inhibitor, might reduce thrombosis with minimal effect on haemostasis. We aimed to determine the optimal dose of asundexian and to compare the incidence of bleeding with that of apixaban in patients with atrial fibrillation. Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, phase 2 dose-finding study, we compared asundexian 20 mg or 50 mg once daily with apixaban 5 mg twice daily in patients aged 45 years or older with atrial fibrillation, a CHA2DS2-VASc score of at least 2 if male or at least 3 if female, and increased bleeding risk. The study was conducted at 93 sites in 14 countries, including 12 European countries, Canada, and Japan. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to a treatment group using an interactive web response system, with randomisation stratified by whether patients were receiving a direct-acting oral anticoagulant before the study start. Masking was achieved using a double-dummy design, with participants receiving both the assigned treatment and a placebo that resembled the non-assigned treatment. The primary endpoint was the composite of major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding according to International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria, assessed in all patients who took at least one dose of study medication. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04218266, and EudraCT, 2019-002365-35. Findings: Between Jan 30, 2020, and June 21, 2021, 862 patients were enrolled. 755 patients were randomly assigned to treatment. Two patients (assigned to asundexian 20 mg) never took any study medication, resulting in 753 patients being included in the analysis (249 received asundexian 20 mg, 254 received asundexian 50 g, and 250 received apixaban). The mean age of participants was 73·7 years (SD 8·3), 309 (41%) were women, 216 (29%) had chronic kidney disease, and mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3·9 (1·3). Asundexian 20 mg resulted in 81% inhibition of FXIa activity at trough concentrations and 90% inhibition at peak concentrations; asundexian 50 mg resulted in 92% inhibition at trough concentrations and 94% inhibition at peak concentrations. Ratios of incidence proportions for the primary endpoint were 0·50 (90% CI 0·14–1·68) for asundexian 20 mg (three events), 0·16 (0·01–0·99) for asundexian 50 mg (one event), and 0·33 (0·09–0·97) for pooled asundexian (four events) versus apixaban (six events). The rate of any adverse event occurring was similar in the three treatment groups: 118 (47%) with asundexian 20 mg, 120 (47%) with asundexian 50 mg, and 122 (49%) with apixaban. Interpretation: The FXIa inhibitor asundexian at doses of 20 mg and 50 mg once daily resulted in lower rates of bleeding compared with standard dosing of apixaban, with near-complete in-vivo FXIa inhibition, in patients with atrial fibrillation. Funding: Bayer
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