45 research outputs found

    Conceptual Challenges for Interpretable Machine Learning

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    Randomised clinical trial: Alisporivir combined with peginterferon and ribavirin in treatment-naĂŻve patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection (ESSENTIAL II)

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    Background Alisporivir (ALV) is an oral, host-targeting agent with pangenotypic anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity and a high barrier to resistance. Aim To evaluate efficacy and safety of ALV plus peginterferon-α2a and ribavirin (PR) in treatment-naïve patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. Methods Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 study evaluating ALV 600 mg once daily [response-guided therapy (RGT) for 24 or 48 weeks or 48 weeks fixed duration] or ALV 400 mg twice daily RGT with PR, compared to PR alone. Following a Food and Drug Administration partial clinical hold, ALV/placebo was discontinued and patients completed treatment with PR only. At that time, 87% of patients had received ≥12 weeks and 20% had received ≥24 weeks of ALV/PR triple therapy. Results A total of 1081 patients were randomised (12% cirrhosis, 55% CT/TT IL28B). Addition of ALV to PR improved virological response in a dose-dependent fashion. Overall, sustained virological response (SVR12; primary endpoint) was 69% in all ALV groups vs. 53% in PR control. Highest SVR12 (90%) was achieved in patients treated with ALV 400 mg twice daily and PR for >24 weeks. Seven cases of pancreatitis were reported, with similar frequency between ALV/PR and PR control groups (0.6% vs. 0.8% respectively). Adverse events seen more frequently with ALV/PR than with PR alone were anaemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperbilirubinaemia and hypertension. Conclusions Alisporivir, especially the 400 mg twice daily regimen, increased efficacy of PR therapy in treatment-naïve patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. The mechanism of action and pangenotypic activity suggest that alisporivir could be useful in interferon-free combination regimens

    Randomised clinical trial: Alisporivir combined with peginterferon and ribavirin in treatment-na\uefve patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection (ESSENTIAL II)

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    BACKGROUND: Alisporivir (ALV) is an oral, host-targeting agent with pangenotypic anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity and a high barrier to resistance. AIM: To evaluate efficacy and safety of ALV plus peginterferon-\u3b12a and ribavirin (PR) in treatment-na\uefve patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. METHODS: Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 study evaluating ALV 600 mg once daily [response-guided therapy (RGT) for 24 or 48 weeks or 48 weeks fixed duration] or ALV 400 mg twice daily RGT with PR, compared to PR alone. Following a Food and Drug Administration partial clinical hold, ALV/placebo was discontinued and patients completed treatment with PR only. At that time, 87% of patients had received 6512 weeks and 20% had received 6524 weeks of ALV/PR triple therapy. RESULTS: A total of 1081 patients were randomised (12% cirrhosis, 55% CT/TT IL28B). Addition of ALV to PR improved virological response in a dose-dependent fashion. Overall, sustained virological response (SVR12; primary endpoint) was 69% in all ALV groups vs. 53% in PR control. Highest SVR12 (90%) was achieved in patients treated with ALV 400 mg twice daily and PR for >24 weeks. Seven cases of pancreatitis were reported, with similar frequency between ALV/PR and PR control groups (0.6% vs. 0.8% respectively). Adverse events seen more frequently with ALV/PR than with PR alone were anaemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperbilirubinaemia and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Alisporivir, especially the 400 mg twice daily regimen, increased efficacy of PR therapy in treatment-na\uefve patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. The mechanism of action and pangenotypic activity suggest that alisporivir could be useful in interferon-free combination regimens

    Anorganische Verbindungen mit einem Ion oder mehreren Ionen mit nicht abgeschlossenen Schalen (auĂźer den Verbindungen in Abschnitt 29 2)

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    Density-potential mappings in quantum dynamics

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    In a recent letter [Europhys. Lett. 95, 13001 (2011)] the question of whether the density of a time-dependent quantum system determines its external potential was reformulated as a fixed point problem. This idea was used to generalize the existence and uniqueness theorems underlying time-dependent density functional theory. In this work we extend this proof to allow for more general norms and provide a numerical implementation of the fixed-point iteration scheme. We focus on the one-dimensional case as it allows for a more in-depth analysis using singular Sturm-Liouville theory and at the same time provides an easy visualization of the numerical applications in space and time. We give an explicit relation between the boundary conditions on the density and the convergence properties of the fixed-point procedure via the spectral properties of the associated Sturm-Liouville operator. We show precisely under which conditions discrete and continuous spectra arise and give explicit examples. These conditions are then used to show that in the most physically relevant cases the fixed point procedure converges. This is further demonstrated with an example.Comment: 20 pages, 8 figures, 3 table

    Global fixed point proof of time-dependent density-functional theory

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    We reformulate and generalize the uniqueness and existence proofs of time-dependent density-functional theory. The central idea is to restate the fundamental one-to-one correspondence between densities and potentials as a global fixed point question for potentials on a given time-interval. We show that the unique fixed point, i.e. the unique potential generating a given density, is reached as the limiting point of an iterative procedure. The one-to-one correspondence between densities and potentials is a straightforward result provided that the response function of the divergence of the internal forces is bounded. The existence, i.e. the v-representability of a density, can be proven as well provided that the operator norms of the response functions of the members of the iterative sequence of potentials have an upper bound. The densities under consideration have second time-derivatives that are required to satisfy a condition slightly weaker than being square-integrable. This approach avoids the usual restrictions of Taylor-expandability in time of the uniqueness theorem by Runge and Gross [Phys.Rev.Lett.52, 997 (1984)] and of the existence theorem by van Leeuwen [Phys.Rev.Lett. 82, 3863 (1999)]. Owing to its generality, the proof not only answers basic questions in density-functional theory but also has potential implications in other fields of physics.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figur

    Literatur- und Interviewverzeichnis

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