325 research outputs found

    Clues on the Galactic evolution of sulphur from star clusters

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    (Abridged) The abundances of alpha-elements are a powerful diagnostic of the star formation history and chemical evolution of a galaxy. Sulphur, being moderately volatile, can be reliably measured in the interstellar medium (ISM) of damped Ly-alpha galaxies and extragalactic HII regions. Measurements in stars of different metallicity in our Galaxy can then be readily compared to the abundances in external galaxies. Such a comparison is not possible for Si or Ca that suffer depletion onto dust in the ISM. Furthermore, studying sulphur is interesting because it probes nucleosynthetic conditions that are very different from those of O or Mg. The measurements in star clusters are a reliable tracers of the Galactic evolution of sulphur. We find NLTE=6.11+/-0.04 for M 4, NLTE=7.17+/-0.02 for NGC 2477, and NLTE=7.13+/-0.06 for NGC 5822. For the only star studied in Trumpler 5 we find A(S)NLTE=6.43+/-0.03 and A(S)LTE=6.94+/-0.05. Our measurements show that, by and large, the S abundances in Galactic clusters trace reliably those in field stars. The only possible exception is Trumpler 5, for which the NLTE sulphur abundance implies an [S/Fe] ratio lower by roughly 0.4 dex than observed in field stars of comparable metallicity, even though its LTE sulphur abundance is in line with abundances of field stars. Moreover the LTE sulphur abundance is consistent only with the abundance of another alpha-element, Mg, in the same star, while the low NLTE value is consistent with Si and Ca. The S abundances in our sample of stars in clusters imply that the clusters are chemically homogeneous for S within 0.05 dex.Comment: A&A in pres

    The Seven Sisters DANCe. I. Empirical isochrones, Luminosity and Mass Functions of the Pleiades cluster

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    The DANCe survey provides photometric and astrometric (position and proper motion) measurements for approximately 2 millions unique sources in a region encompassing ‚Čą\approx80deg2^{2} centered around the Pleiades cluster. We aim at deriving a complete census of the Pleiades, and measure the mass and luminosity function of the cluster. Using the probabilistic selection method described in Sarro+2014, we identify high probability members in the DANCe (i‚Č•i\ge14mag) and Tycho-2 (V‚Č≤V\lesssim12mag) catalogues, and study the properties of the cluster over the corresponding luminosity range. We find a total of 2109 high probability members, of which 812 are new, making it the most extensive and complete census of the cluster to date. The luminosity and mass functions of the cluster are computed from the most massive members down to ‚Čą\approx0.025M‚äô_{\odot}. The size, sensitivity and quality of the sample result in the most precise luminosity and mass functions observed to date for a cluster. Our census supersedes previous studies of the Pleiades cluster populations, both in terms of sensitivity and accuracy.Comment: Language Edition Done. Final version to be published in A&A. Tables will be published at CDS. Meanwhile, they can be requested to H. Bouy (hbouy -at- cab . inta - csic . es

    A super lithium-rich red-clump star in the open cluster Trumpler 5

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    Context. The existence of lithium-rich low-mass red giant stars still represents a challenge for stellar evolution models. Stellar clusters are privileged environments for this kind of investigation. Aims. To investigate the chemical abundance pattern of the old open cluster Trumpler\,5, we observed a sample of four red-clump stars with high-resolution optical spectrographs. One of them (#3416) reveals extremely strong lithium lines in its spectrum. Methods. One-dimensional, local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis was performed on the spectra of the observed stars. A 3D-NLTE analysis was performed to derive the lithium abundance of star #3416. Results. Star #3416 is super Li-rich with A(Li)=3.75\,dex. The lack of 6^6Li enrichment (6^6Li/7^7Li<<2%), the low carbon isotopic ratio (12^{12}C/13^{13}C=14¬Ī\pm3), and the lack of evidence for radial velocity variation or enhanced rotational velocity (vsin‚Ā°i=2.8‚ÄČv\sin i = 2.8\,\kms) all suggest that lithium production has occurred in this star through the Cameron & Fowler mechanism. Conclusions. We identified a super Li-rich core helium-burning, red-clump star in an open cluster. Internal production is the most likely cause of the observed enrichment. Given the expected short duration of a star's Li-rich phase, enrichment is likely to have occurred at the red clump or in the immediately preceding phases, namely during the He-flash at the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) or while ascending the brightest portion of the RGB.Comment: 7 pages, 2 figures. Accepted for publication in A&A Letter

    Anchors for the Cosmic Distance Scale: the Cepheids U Sgr, CF Cas and CEab Cas

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    New and existing X-ray, UBVJHKsW(1-4), and spectroscopic observations were analyzed to constrain fundamental parameters for M25, NGC 7790, and dust along their sight-lines. The star clusters are of particular importance given they host the classical Cepheids U Sgr, CF Cas, and the visual binary Cepheids CEa and CEb Cas. Precise results from the multiband analysis, in tandem with a comprehensive determination of the Cepheids' period evolution (dP/dt) from ~140 years of observations, helped resolve concerns raised regarding the clusters and their key Cepheid constituents. Specifically, distances derived for members of M25 and NGC 7790 are 630+-25 pc and 3.40+-0.15 kpc, respectively.Comment: To appear in Astronomy and Astrophysic

    Recent Progress in DIB Research: Survey of PAHS and DIBS

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    The spectra of several neutral and ionized PAHs isolated in the gas phase at low temperature have been measured in the laboratory under experimental conditions that mimic interstellar conditions and are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars [1, 2]. The comparisons of astronomical and laboratory data provide upper limits for the abundances of specific neutral PAH molecules and ions along specific lines-of-sight. Something that is not attainable from infrared observations alone. We present the characteristics of the laboratory facility (COSmIC) that was developed for this study and discuss the findings resulting from the comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations. COSmIC combines a supersonic free jet expansion with discharge plasma and high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy and provides experimental conditions that closely mimic the interstellar conditions. The column densities of the individual neutral PAH molecules and ions probed in these surveys are derived from the comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations. The comparisons of astronomical and laboratory data lead to clear and unambiguous conclusions regarding the expected abundances for PAHs of various sizes and charge states in the interstellar environments probed in the surveys. Band profile comparisons between laboratory and astronomical spectra lead to information regarding the molecular structures and characteristics associated with the DIB carriers in the corresponding lines-of-sight. These quantitative surveys of neutral and ionized PAHs in the optical range open the way for unambiguous quantitative searches of PAHs and complex organics in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments

    Assimilation of satellite images into a sediment transport model of Lake Michigan

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    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/95634/1/wrcr11678.pd
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