1,240 research outputs found

    Homocysteine-induced peripheral microcirculation dysfunction in zebrafish and its attenuation by L-arginine

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    Elevated blood homocysteine (Hcy) level is frequently observed in aged individuals and those with age-related vascular diseases. However, its effect on peripheral microcirculation is still not fully understood. Using in vivo zebrafish model, the degree of Hcy-induced peripheral microcirculation dysfunction is assessed in this study with a proposed dimensionless velocity parameter (V) over bar (CV)/(V) over bar (PCV), where (V) over bar (CV) and (V) over bar (PCV) represent the peripheral microcirculation perfusion and the systemic perfusion levels, respectively. The ratio of the peripheral microcirculation perfusion to the systemic perfusion is largely decreased due to peripheral accumulation of neutrophils, while the systemic perfusion is relatively preserved by increased blood supply from subintestinal vein. Pretreatment with L-arginine attenuates the effects of Hcy on peripheral microcirculation and reduces the peripheral accumulation of neutrophils. Given its convenience, high reproducibility of the observation site, non-invasiveness, and the ease of drug treatment, the present zebrafish model with the proposed parameters will be used as a useful drug screening platform for investigating the pathophysiology of Hcy-induced microvascular diseases.111Ysciescopu

    In situ electrochemical surface modification for high-voltage LiCoO2 in lithium ion batteries

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    High-voltage LiCoO2 has been revisited to improve the energy density of lithium ion batteries. LiCoO2 can deliver the reversible capacity of about 200 mA h g(-1) when the upper cut-off voltage increases to 4.55 V (vs. Li/Li+). However, the high upper cut-off voltage causes the severe failures of LiCoO2 such as structural degradation, electrolyte decomposition, and Co dissolution. Various surface-modified LiCoO2 materials have been introduced to suppress electrolyte decomposition and Co dissolution, thereby leading to the improved electrochemical performance. Most of the coated LiCoO2 materials are obtained through a conventional coating process such as sol-gel synthesis, which is complex and high-cost. In this paper, the in situ electrochemical coating method is introduced as a simple and low-cost coating process, where the electrolyte additive of Mg salts is electrochemically decomposed to form a MgF2-based coating layer on the LiCoO2 surface. LiCoO2 electrochemically coated with MgF2 suppresses Co dissolution in electrolytes, resulting in excellent electrochemical performance such as high reversible capacity of 198 mA h g(-1) and stable cycle performance over 100 cycles in the voltage range between 3 and 4.55 V (vs. Li/Li+) at 45 degrees C. The formation mechanism of MgF2 is also demonstrated through ex situ XPS and XANES analyses.