68 research outputs found

    Current Advances in the Biomedical Applications of Quantum Dots: Promises and Challenges

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    Quantum dots (QDs) are a type of nanoparticle with exceptional photobleaching-resistant fluorescence. They are highly sought after for their potential use in various optical-based biomedical applications. However, there are still concerns regarding the use of quantum dots. As such, much effort has been invested into understanding the mechanisms behind the behaviors of QDs, so as to develop safer and more biocompatible quantum dots. In this mini-review, we provide an update on the recent advancements regarding the use of QDs in various biomedical applications. In addition, we also discuss# the current challenges and limitations in the use of QDs and propose a few areas of interest for future research

    Isomer-Free Quinoidal Building Block Employing 3,4-Phenylenedioxythiophene Unit with Mesomeric Effect for Low-Bandgap Quinoidal Conjugated Polymers

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    Quinoidal compounds have attractive features as organic semiconducting materials owing to their distinct properties compared to aromatic compounds. The suppression of geometrical isomers is a challenge in the development of quinoid-type molecules. In this study, a novel quinoidal building block, bQuPheDOT-Br, was synthesized by incorporating 3,4-phenylenedioxythiophene (PheDOT). Using the conformation-locking strategy, bQuPheDOT-Br exists as a single isomeric compound with a planar molecular structure, resulting in effective π-electron delocalization. Two quinoidal conjugated polymers, PbQPheDOT-T2 and PbQPheDOT-2FT2, were synthesized. Owing to the planar geometry and possible electron delocalization due to the phenyl ring incorporation of the bQPheDOT unit, PbQPheDOT-T2 and PbQPheDOT-2FT2 exhibited a low bandgap (∼1.3 eV) and near-infrared (NIR) light absorption up to 1200 nm wavelength due to the mesomeric effect. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering revealed that both polymers exhibited high crystallinity up to the fourth order of the (h00) diffraction peaks after thermal annealing, owing to their rigid and planar quinoidal backbone. Finally, the charge transport properties of PbQPheDOT-T2 and PbQPheDOT-2FT2 were evaluated by fabricating organic field-effect transistors as active layers with hole mobilities of 5.2 × 10–2 and 2.6 × 10–2 cm2/Vs, respectively, and electron mobility of 1.0 × 10–2 cm2/Vs for PbQPheDOT-T2

    Red CdSe/ZnS QDs’ Intracellular Trafficking and Its Impact on Yeast Polarization and Actin Filament

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    Quantum dots are nanoparticles (2–10 nm) that emit strong and tunable fluorescence. Quantum dots have been heavily used in high-demand commercialized products, research, and for medical purposes. Emerging concerns have demonstrated the negative impact of quantum dots on living cells; however, the intracellular trafficking of QDs in yeast cells and the effect of this interaction remains unclear. The primary goal of our research is to investigate the trafficking path of red cadmium selenide zinc sulfide quantum dots (CdSe/ZnS QDs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the impact QDs have on yeast cellular dynamics. Using cells with GFP-tagged reference organelle markers and confocal microscopy, we were able to track the internalization of QDs. We found that QDs initially aggregate at the exterior of yeast cells, enter the cell using clathrin-receptor-mediated endocytosis, and distribute at the late Golgi/trans-Golgi network. We also found that the treatment of red CdSe/ZnS QDs resulted in growth rate reduction and loss of polarized growth in yeast cells. Our RNA sequence analysis revealed many altered genes. Particularly, we found an upregulation of DID2, which has previously been associated with cell cycle arrest when overexpressed, and a downregulation of APS2, a gene that codes for a subunit of AP2 protein important for the recruitment of proteins to clathrin-mediated endocytosis vesicle. Furthermore, CdSe/ZnS QDs treatment resulted in a slightly delayed endocytosis and altered the actin dynamics in yeast cells. We found that QDs caused an increased level of F-actin and a significant reduction in profilin protein expression. In addition, there was a significant elevation in the amount of coronin protein expressed, while the level of cofilin was unchanged. Altogether, this suggests that QDs favor the assembly of actin filaments. Overall, this study provides a novel toxicity mechanism of red CdSe/ZnS QDs on yeast actin dynamics and cellular processes, including endocytosis

    Red CdSe/ZnS QDs’ Intracellular Trafficking and Its Impact on Yeast Polarization and Actin Filament

    No full text
    Quantum dots are nanoparticles (2–10 nm) that emit strong and tunable fluorescence. Quantum dots have been heavily used in high-demand commercialized products, research, and for medical purposes. Emerging concerns have demonstrated the negative impact of quantum dots on living cells; however, the intracellular trafficking of QDs in yeast cells and the effect of this interaction remains unclear. The primary goal of our research is to investigate the trafficking path of red cadmium selenide zinc sulfide quantum dots (CdSe/ZnS QDs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the impact QDs have on yeast cellular dynamics. Using cells with GFP-tagged reference organelle markers and confocal microscopy, we were able to track the internalization of QDs. We found that QDs initially aggregate at the exterior of yeast cells, enter the cell using clathrin-receptor-mediated endocytosis, and distribute at the late Golgi/trans-Golgi network. We also found that the treatment of red CdSe/ZnS QDs resulted in growth rate reduction and loss of polarized growth in yeast cells. Our RNA sequence analysis revealed many altered genes. Particularly, we found an upregulation of DID2, which has previously been associated with cell cycle arrest when overexpressed, and a downregulation of APS2, a gene that codes for a subunit of AP2 protein important for the recruitment of proteins to clathrin-mediated endocytosis vesicle. Furthermore, CdSe/ZnS QDs treatment resulted in a slightly delayed endocytosis and altered the actin dynamics in yeast cells. We found that QDs caused an increased level of F-actin and a significant reduction in profilin protein expression. In addition, there was a significant elevation in the amount of coronin protein expressed, while the level of cofilin was unchanged. Altogether, this suggests that QDs favor the assembly of actin filaments. Overall, this study provides a novel toxicity mechanism of red CdSe/ZnS QDs on yeast actin dynamics and cellular processes, including endocytosis

    Non-ROS-Mediated Cytotoxicity of ZnO and CuO in ML-1 and CA77 Thyroid Cancer Cell Lines

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    Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are widely used in agriculture and food development but there is little understanding of how MONPs, including ZnO, CuO, TiO2, and SnO2, impact human health and the environment. Our growth assay revealed that none of these (up to 100 µg/mL) negatively affect viability in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast, both human thyroid cancer cells (ML-1) and rat medullary thyroid cancer cells (CA77) displayed a significant reduction in cell viability with the treatment of CuO and ZnO. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these cell lines, when treated with CuO and ZnO, was found to be not significantly altered. However, levels of apoptosis with ZnO and CuO were increased, which led us to conclude that the decreased cell viability is mainly caused by non-ROS-mediated cell death. Consistently, data from our RNAseq studies identified differentially regulated pathways associated with inflammation, Wnt, and cadherin signaling across both cell lines, ML-1, and CA77, after ZnO or CuO MONP treatment. Results from gene studies further support non-ROS-mediated apoptosis being the main factor behind decreased cell viability. Together, these findings provide unique evidence that the apoptosis in response to treatment of CuO and ZnO in these thyroid cancer cells was not mainly due to oxidative stress, but to the alteration of a range of signal cascades that promotes cell death

    Quantum Dots and Their Interaction with Biological Systems

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    Quantum dots are nanocrystals with bright and tunable fluorescence. Due to their unique property, quantum dots are sought after for their potential in several applications in biomedical sciences as well as industrial use. However, concerns regarding QDs’ toxicity toward the environment and other biological systems have been rising rapidly in the past decade. In this mini-review, we summarize the most up-to-date details regarding quantum dots’ impacts, as well as QDs’ interaction with mammalian organisms, fungal organisms, and plants at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. We also provide details about QDs’ cellular uptake and trafficking, and QDs’ general interactions with biological structures. In this mini-review, we aim to provide a better understanding of our current standing in the research of quantum dots, point out some knowledge gaps in the field, and provide hints for potential future research

    Intracellular Trafficking and Distribution of Cd and InP Quantum Dots in HeLa and ML-1 Thyroid Cancer Cells

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    The study of the interaction of engineered nanoparticles, including quantum dots (QDs), with cellular constituents and the kinetics of their localization and transport, has provided new insights into their biological consequences in cancers and for the development of effective cancer therapies. The present study aims to elucidate the toxicity and intracellular transport kinetics of CdSe/ZnS and InP/ZnS QDs in late-stage ML-1 thyroid cancer using well-tested HeLa as a control. Our XTT (2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) viability assay (Cell Proliferation Kit II) showed that ML-1 cells and non-cancerous mouse fibroblast cells exhibit no viability defect in response to these QDs, whereas HeLa cell viability decreases. These results suggest that HeLa cells are more sensitive to the QDs compared to ML-1 cells. To test the possibility that transporting rates of QDs are different between HeLa and ML-1 cells, we performed a QD subcellular localization assay by determining Pearson’s Coefficient values and found that HeLa cells showed faster QDs transporting towards the lysosome. Consistently, the ICP-OES test showed the uptake of CdSe/ZnS QDs in HeLa cells was significantly higher than in ML-1 cells. Together, we conclude that high levels of toxicity in HeLa are positively correlated with the traffic rate of QDs in the treated cells

    Estimating Express Train Preference of Urban Railway Passengers Based on Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) using Smart Card Data

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    As the share of public transport increases, the express strategy of the urban railway is regarded as one of the solutions that allow the public transportation system to operate efficiently. It is crucial to express the urban railway’s express strategy to balance a passenger load between the two types of trains, that is, local and express trains. This research aims to estimate passengers’ preference between local and express trains based on a machine learning technique. Extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) is trained to model express train preference using smart card and train log data. The passengers are categorized into four types according to their preference for the local and express trains. The smart card data and train log data of Metro Line 9 in Seoul are combined to generate the individual trip chain alternatives for each passenger. With the dataset, the train preference is estimated by XGBoost, and Shapley additive explanations (SHAP) is used to interpret and analyze the importance of individual features. The overall F1 score of the model is estimated to be 0.982. The results of feature analysis show that the total travel time of the local train feature is found to substantially affect the probability of express train preference with a 1.871 SHAP value. As a result, the probability of the express train preference increases with longer total travel time, shorter in-vehicle time, shorter waiting time, and few transfers on the passenger’s route. The model shows notable performance in accuracy and provided an understanding of the estimation results

    Transcriptome Profile Alterations with Carbon Nanotubes, Quantum Dots, and Silver Nanoparticles: A Review

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    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has revolutionized sequence-based research. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing has become the method of choice in studying the toxicity of chemical agents through observing and measuring changes in transcript levels. Engineered nanomaterial (ENM)-toxicity has become a major field of research and has adopted microarray and newer RNA-Seq methods. Recently, nanotechnology has become a promising tool in the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases in humans. However, due to their high stability, they are likely capable of remaining in the body and environment for long periods of time. Their mechanisms of toxicity and long-lasting effects on our health is still poorly understood. This review explores the effects of three ENMs including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), quantum dots (QDs), and Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) by cross examining publications on transcriptomic changes induced by these nanomaterials

    Comparing Transcriptome Profiles of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Cells Exposed to Cadmium Selenide/Zinc Sulfide and Indium Phosphide/Zinc Sulfide

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    The primary focus of our research was to obtain global gene expression data in baker’s yeast exposed to sub-lethal doses of quantum dots (QDs), such as green-emitting CdSe/ZnS and InP/ZnS, to reveal novel insights on their unique mechanisms of toxicity. Despite their promising applications, their toxicity and long-lasting effects on the environment are not well understood. To assess toxicity, we conducted cell viability assays, ROS detection assays, and assessed their effects on the trafficking of Vps10-GFP toward the trans-Golgi network with confocal microscopy. Most notably, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to obtain gene expression profiles and gene identities of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in QD-treated yeast. We found CdSe/ZnS QDs significantly altered genes implicated in carboxylic acid, amino acid, nitrogen compounds, protein metabolic processes, transmembrane transport, cellular homeostasis, cell wall organization, translation, and ribosomal biogenesis. Additionally, we found InP/ZnS QDs to alter genes associated with oxidation-reduction, transmembrane transport, metal ion homeostasis, cellular component organization, translation, and protein and nitrogen compound metabolic processes. Interestingly, we observed an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CdSe/ZnS-treated cells and a decrease in ROS levels in InP/ZnS-treated cells. Nevertheless, we concluded that both QDs modestly contributed cytotoxic effects on the budding yeast
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