12 research outputs found

    Preliminary investigation on the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection in Mae Sot District, Tak Province of Thailand

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    Objective: To preliminarily investigate the prevalence of HIV co-infection in patients with malaria in Mae Sot District, Tak Province of Thailand. Methods: The study was a retrospective study on blood samples collected from a total of 256 patients with malaria (all species and severity) who attended Mae Tao clinic for migrant workers, Tak Province during 2005–2007 (148 samples) and 2010–2012 (108 samples). Malaria diagnosis was performed based on microscopic examination of patients' blood smears. Chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay and gel particle passive agglutination were employed for the detection of HIV antigen in patients' plasma. Results: Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) and Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) are the two predominant malaria species with the ratio of about 1: 1 to 1.5:1. Most of the P. falciparum cases were presented with acute uncomplicated signs and symptoms with highest parasitemia of 1 045 000 asexual parasites/μL bloods. The prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection during 2005-2007 was 1.35% (2/148 cases, 1 each for P. falciparum and P. vivax co-infection), but was increased to 2.78% (3/108 cases, 2 and 1 for P. falciparum and P. vivax co-infection, respectively) during 2010-2012. Conclusions: The increasing trend of prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection in Mae Sot, Tak province was of a great concern on either pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetics aspect. The study in a larger numbers of malaria patients in different endemic areas throughout the country with different time periods is underway

    Change in mutation patterns of Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase ( Pvdhfr ) and dihydropteroate synthase (Pvdhps) in P. vivax isolates from malaria endemic areas of Thailand

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    Malaria is the most important public health problem in several countries. In Thailand, co-infections of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are common. We examined the prevalence and patterns of mutations in P. vivax dihydrofolate reductase (Pvdhfr) and P. vivax dihydropteroate synthase (Pvdhps) in 103 blood samples collected from patients with P. vivax infection who had attended the malaria clinic in Mae Sot, Tak Province during 2009 and 2010. Using nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorfism, we examined single nucleotide polymorphisms-haplotypes at amino acid positions 13, 33, 57, 58, 61, 117 and 173 of Pvdhfr and 383 and 553 of Pvdhps. All parasite isolates carried mutant Pvdhfr alleles, of which the most common alleles were triple mutants (99%). Eight different types of Pvdhfr and combination alleles were found, as follows: 57I/58R/117T, 57I/58R/117T, 57I/58R/117T/N, 57L/58R/117T, 57L/58R/117T, 58R/61M/117N, 58R/61M/117N and 13L/57L/58R/117T. The most common Pvdhfr alleles were 57I/58R/117T (77.7%), 57I/58R/117T/N (1%), 57L/58R/117T (5.8%) and 58R/61M/117N (14.5%). The most common Pvdhfr alleles were 57I/58R/117T (77.7%), 57I/58R/117T/N (1%), 57L/58R/117T (5.8%) and 58R/61M/117N (14.5%). Additionally, we recovered one isolate of a carrying a quadruple mutant allele, 13L/57L/58R/117T. The most prevalent Pvdhps allele was a single mutation in amino acid 383 (82.5%), followed by the wild-type A383/A553 (17.5%) allele. Results suggest that all P. vivax isolates in Thailand carry some combination of mutations in Pvdhfr and Pvdhps. Our findings demonstrate that development of new antifolate drugs effective against sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistant P. vivax is required

    Possible Role of Heme Oxygenase-1 and Prostaglandins in the Pathogenesis of Cerebral Malaria: Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction by Prostaglandin D2 and Metabolite by a Human Astrocyte Cell Line

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    Astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the central nervous system that play roles in maintaining the blood-brain-barrier and in neural injury, including cerebral malaria, a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is abundantly produced in the brain and regulates the sleep response. Moreover, PGD2 is a potential factor derived from P. falciparum within erythrocytes. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is catalyzing enzyme in heme breakdown process to release iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin/bilirubin, and may influence iron supply to the P. falciparum parasites. Here, we showed that treatment of a human astrocyte cell line, CCF-STTG1, with PGD2 significantly increased the expression levels of HO-1 mRNA by RT-PCR. Western blot analysis showed that PGD2 treatment increased the level of HO-1 protein, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Thus, PGD2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria by inducing HO-1 expression in malaria patients

    Study on association between genetic polymorphisms of haem oxygenase-1, tumour necrosis factor, cadmium exposure and malaria pathogenicity and severity

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Malaria is the most important public health problems in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Haem oxygenase (HO) enzyme and the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF) have been proposed as one of the factors that may play significant role in pathogenicity/severity of malaria infection. HO is the enzyme of the microsomal haem degradation pathway that yields biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and iron. In this study, the association between malaria disease pathogenicity/severity and (GT)<sub>n </sub>repeat polymorphism in the promoter region of the inducible HO-1 including the effect of cadmium exposure (potent inducer of HO-1 transcription) as well as polymorphism of TNF were investigated.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Blood samples were collected from 329 cases non-severe malaria with acute uncomplicated <it>Plasmodium falciparum </it>malaria (UM) and 80 cases with <it>Plasmodium vivax </it>malaria (VM), and 77 cases with severe or cerebral malaria (SM) for analysis of genetic polymorphisms of HO-1 and TNF and cadmium levels. These patients consisted of 123 (25.3%) Thai, 243 (50.0%) Burmese and 120 (24.7%) Karen who were present at Mae Sot General Hospital, Mae Sot, Tak Province, Thailand.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The number of (GT)<sub>n </sub>repeats of the HO-1 gene in all patients varied between 16 and 39 and categorized to short (S), medium (M) and long (L) GT<sub>n </sub>repeats. The genotype of (GT)<sub>n </sub>repeat of HO-1 was found to be significantly different among the three ethnic groups of patients. Significantly higher frequency of S/L genotype was found in Burmese compared with Thai patients, while significantly lower frequencies of S/S and M/L but higher frequency of M/M genotype was observed in Burmese compared with Karen patients. No significant association between HO-1 and TNF polymorphisms including the inducing effect of cadmium and malaria pathogenicity/severity was observed.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Difference in the expression of HO-1 genotype in different ethnic groups may contribute to different severity of malaria disease. With this limited sample size, the finding of the lack of association between malaria disease pathogenicity/severity genetic polymorphisms of HO-1 (GT)<sub>n </sub>repeat as well as TNF observed in this study may not entirely exclude their possible link with malaria disease pathogenicity/severity. Further study in larger sample size is required.</p