767 research outputs found

    Xenotransplantation - current social, ethical, religious, and legal aspects

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    Introduction: Xenotransplantology, the field of transplantation involving organs or tissues between different species, holds great promise for addressing the global organ shortage crisis. However, the development of new technologies without proper legislative preparation raises significant moral and ethical considerations. This paper provides an overview of the current state of xenotransplantology, highlighting its revolutionary potential alongside the moral dilemmas it entails. Aim of the study: The aim of this study is to assess current social, ethical, religious, and legal trends regarding the issue of xenotransplantation. Materials and methods: To obtain up-to-date information concerning trends in xenotransplantation, a review of the PubMed and Google Scholar databases, along with the latest legislative reports in both Europe and Poland, was performed. Conclusions: Firstly, the authors briefly report on the current situation concerning transplantology and the widely spread organ donor crisis. Next, the issue of species boundaries and the moral status of non-human animals is addressed. The assessment of ethical implications of utilizing animals as organ donors is examined, along with the legal acts regulating this issue. Moreover, the authors attempt to evaluate the cultural and religious differences related to this concern. Furthermore, this study discusses the allocation and distribution of xenotransplants, considering issues of justice, fairness, and access to this innovative medical technology. Lastly, the paper delves into the risks and uncertainties associated with xenotransplantation, including the possibility of cross-species disease transmission and intensified course of organ rejection disease

    Predictive value of ERCC1 single-nucleotide polymorphism in patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy for locally-advanced and advanced non-small cell lung cancer ÔÇö a pilot study

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    Platinum-based chemotherapy is the main type of I-line treatment of advanced and non-operative NSCLC patients without EGFR gene mutation. The excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) is an enzyme that executes the incision of the damaged DNA strand and removes platinum-induced DNA adducts. We investigated whether ERCC1 gene polymorphism has an effect on the response to chemotherapy and survival in 43 patients with NSCLC treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. ERCC1 19007 T>C SNPs were assessed using a PCR-RFLP methods in DNA isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Disease control occurred significantly (p = 0.045) more frequently in patients with CC or CT genotype compared to patients with TT genotype. Median PFS and OS for CC homozygous were 4 and 10.5 months, 4 and 12.5 months for CT heterozygous, but only 0.3 and 1.5 months for TT homozygous patients, respectively. The probability of PFS was significantly higher (HR = 0.438, 95% CI: 0.084ÔÇô0.881, p = 0.03) and probability of OS was insignificantlyhigher (HR = 0.503, 95% CI: 0.129ÔÇô1.137, p = 0.084) in patients with CC or CT genotype than in patients with TT genotype. Uncommon TT genotype of ERCC1 19007 T>C polymorphism could predict poor response and shortening of progression free survival in NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based I-line chemotherapy. The analysis of this polymorphism may serve as a promising tool in the qualification of advanced NSCLC patients for appropriate chemotherapy

    Szybka diagnostyka patomorfologiczna i molekularna chorych na raka płuca na podstawie techniki telepatologii

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    Telepathology is an emerging form of diagnostic process introducing digitalization of slides prepared from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded materials and stained cytological smears. The use of whole slide imaging (WSI) systems could accelerate and improve the diagnosis of malignant neoplasms without the need of on-site pathologist or transporting diagnostic material in-between different locations. The implementation of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) in diagnostic process of advanced lung cancer creates a new field for telepathology utilization. In selected patients, pathomorphological and genetic diagnosis may take less than a week and therapeutic decisions can be made in a short time. There are several important issues that concern the use of telepathology and WSI in everyday clinical environment. This short review presents the pros and cons of this technology and its applicability in rapid diagnosis of lung cancer, its utilization in connection with novel sampling methods and molecular analysis.Telepatologia to nowa forma procesu diagnostycznego wprowadzaj─ůca cyfryzacj─Ö preparat├│w przygotowanych z bloczk├│w parafinowych lub wybarwionych rozmaz├│w cytologicznych. Wykorzystanie systemu skanowania ca┼éych preparat├│w mo┼╝e polepszy─ç i znacz─ůco przyspieszy─ç diagnostyk─Ö nowotwor├│w z┼éo┼Ťliwych bez wymaganej obecno┼Ťci patomorfologa w miejscu wykonywania diagnostyki oraz bez potrzeby transportowania pobranego materia┼éu pomi─Ödzy r├│┼╝nymi lokalizacjami. Wprowadzenie biopsji aspiracyjnej cienkoig┼éowej (FNA) przeprowadzanej pod kontrol─ů przezoskrzelowego lub przezprze┼éykowego USG (EBUS lub EUS) do procesu diagnostycznego zaawansowanego raka p┼éuca tworzy nowe pole do zastosowania telepatologii. U wybranych chorych diagnoza patomorfologiczna i genetyczna mo┼╝e trwa─ç poni┼╝ej tygodnia, a decyzje terapeutyczne mog─ů zosta─ç podj─Öte w kr├│tkim czasie. Istnieje kilka istotnych kwestii zwi─ůzanych z wykorzystaniem telepatologii oraz skanowania ca┼éych preparat├│w w codziennej praktyce klinicznej. Ten kr├│tki przegl─ůd ma na celu przybli┼╝enie wad i zalet opisanej technologii i ich mo┼╝liwo┼Ťci wykorzystania w szybkiej diagnostyce raka p┼éuca w po┼é─ůczeniu z nowoczesnymi metodami pobierania materia┼éu i konieczno┼Ťci─ů prowadzenia diagnostyki genetycznej

    Epidemiologia astmy w Polsce z podzia┼éem na regiony wiejskie i miejskie na podstawie danych dotycz─ůcych udzielanych ┼Ťwiadcze┼ä zdrowotnych

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    Introduction: Asthma is a serious health and social problem, also in Poland. The epidemiological data indicate that the problem of asthma concerns approximately 4 million people in Poland, whereas almost approximately 70% of them have no diagnosis and are not aware of their illness, and on the other hand in 39% of persons who declared the diagnosis of asthma in a survey the diagnosis was negatively verified (overdiagnosis of asthma). So far, no detailed comparative studies for asthma incidence rate in urban and rural areas were conducted in Poland. The aim of the study was to analyze patients with asthma in Poland in the years 2008Ôłĺ2012, with regard to province and type of commune (rural/urban). Material and methods: The study used data from National Health Fund (NFZ) ÔÇö reported by health care providers regarding the patients diagnosed with asthma. Using structured query language (SQL) a set of patients was selected and created, for whom at the same time ICD-10 code: J45.X-bronchial asthma was reported. In order to estimate the number of patients with asthma we used the PESEL social security number as a unique identifier of the patient. Code of the patientÔÇÖs commune of residence in conjunction with the Central Statistical Office data formed the basis for the division of municipalities into urban and rural areas. The analysis of asthma incidence trends in Poland was performed on the basis of health services provided to patients. The analysis was performed by using the Statistica 10 software using a negative binomial regression model. Results: In 2009 a significant increase in the number of patients with asthma was observed compared with the previous year, whereas after 2009 the number of patients diagnosed with asthma remained relatively constant. A significant increase of predominance of women among asthma patients in recent years can be noticed: from 107% in 2008 to almost 115% in 2012 (F:M ratio). Regardless of the analyzed year and the diagnosis the incidence rate remained constant: approximately 55Ôłĺ57% for urban areas and about 43Ôłĺ45% in rural areas. Conclusions: The average prevalence rate for rural areas is significantly lower than for urban areas. The use of adjusted incidence rate leads to the conclusion that the number of sufferers in urban areas is higher (about 10%) of the number of sufferers in the rural areas. The results of the analysis are consistent with information from previous studies in Poland and in the world.Wst─Öp: Astma jest wa┼╝nym problemem zdrowotnym i socjalnym na ┼Ťwiecie oraz w Polsce. Dost─Öpne dane epidemiologiczne wskazuj─ů, ┼╝e problem astmy dotyczy prawie 4 mln os├│b w Polsce, podczas gdy oko┼éo 70% z nich nie ma postawionej diagnozy i nie s─ů ┼Ťwiadomi swojej choroby. Jednocze┼Ťnie oko┼éo 39% chorych z postawion─ů diagnoz─ů astmy jest nast─Öpnie negatywnie weryfikowana (nadrozpoznawalno┼Ť─ç astmy). Do tej pory brakuje szczeg├│┼éowych bada┼ä por├│wnawczych astmy w regionach wiejskich i miejskich. Celem badania by┼éa analiza danych chorych na astm─Ö w Polsce w latach w latach 2008Ôłĺ2012 w odniesieniu do wojew├│dztw oraz typu gminy (wiejskie/miejskie). Materia┼é i metody: W badaniu zastosowano analiz─Ö danych NFZ ÔÇö sprawozdawanych przez ┼Ťwiadczeniodawc├│w ÔÇö pacjent├│w ze zdiagnozowan─ů astm─Ö. Przy zastosowaniu SQl (structured query language) wyodr─Öbniono i utworzono zbiory pacjent├│w dla kt├│rych sprawozdano kod ICD-10: J45.X- dychawica oskrzelowa. W celu oszacowania liczby pacjent├│w wykorzystano numer PESEL, jako unikalny identyfikator pacjenta. Kod gminy miejsca zamieszkania w po┼é─ůczeniu z danymi G┼é├│wnego Urz─Ödu Statystycznego by┼é podstaw─ů podzia┼éu gmin na regiony miejskie i wiejskie. Analiz─Ö trendu zachorowalno┼Ťci na astm─Ö w Polsce wyliczono na podstawie udzielonych pacjentom ┼Ťwiadcze┼ä zdrowotnych. Analiz─Ö przeprowadzono za pomoc─ů narz─Ödzia Statistica 10, korzystaj─ůc z modelu ujemnej regresji binominalnej. Wyniki: W 2009 roku obserwowano istotne zwi─Ökszenie liczby chorych na astm─Ö w por├│wnaniu z rokiem poprzednim, natomiast po 2009 roku liczba pacjent├│w z rozpoznaniem astmy pozostawa┼éa na wzgl─Ödnie st a┼éym poziomie. Zwraca uwag─Ö istotny wzrost w ostatnich latach przewagi kobiet w┼Ťr├│d chorych na astm─Ö: ze 107% w 2008 roku do prawie 115% w 2012 roku (stosunek K:M). Niezale┼╝nie od badanego roku i rozpoznania utrzymuje si─Ö sta┼éy wsp├│┼éczynnik zachorowalno┼Ťci: oko┼éo 55Ôłĺ57% dla region├│w miejskich i oko┼éo 43Ôłĺ45% dla region├│w wiejskich. Wnioski: ┼Üredni wska┼║nik chorobowo┼Ťci dla region├│w wiejskich jest istotnie ni┼╝szy ni┼╝ dla region├│w miejskich. Zastosowanie skorygowanego wsp├│┼éczynnika zachorowalno┼Ťci pozwala na stwierdzenie, ┼╝e liczba choruj─ůcych w regionach miejskich jest wi─Öksza (o oko┼éo 10%) od liczby choruj─ůcych w regionach wiejskich. Wyniki analizy s─ů zbie┼╝ne z informacjami z wcze┼Ťniejszych bada┼ä w Polsce i na ┼Ťwiecie

    Changes in European eel ovary development and body and ovary chemistry during stimulated maturation under controlled conditions: preliminary data

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    This study compared changes in the biochemical composition of muscles and ovaries of maturing female European eels during hormonal stimulation with carp pituitary homogenate under controlled conditions and in the development of oocytes. It has been found that differentiation of oocyte size in eel is visible from the beginning of the gamete maturation process. This differentiation increases as gonads grow. Furthermore, oocytes are at different development stages and are still highly differentiated in terms of size during ovulation. Moreover, the biochemical composition of the body and gonads was found to change. During the process of maturation, the relative fat content in the eel body decreases both in the muscles (from 21.99 ┬▒ 4.3 to 18.48 ┬▒ 3.3 %) and in gonads (from 25.76 ┬▒ 2.71 to 15.21 ┬▒ 4.7 %), with the changes in ovaries being more rapid. Protein content in muscles also decreased (from 15.98 ┬▒ 3.13 to 12.35 ┬▒ 1.6 %) during the process of female maturation. Different trends were observed for polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPA and DHA). The total amount of these acids decreased in muscles (P\0.05) but increased in ovaries (P[0.05)

    Changes in European eel ovary development and body and ovary chemistry during stimulated maturation under controlled conditions -preliminary data

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    This study compared changes in the biochemical composition of muscles and ovaries of maturing female European eels during hormonal stimulation with carp pituitary homogenate under controlled conditions and in the development of oocytes. It has been found that differentiation of oocyte size in eel is visible from the beginning of the gamete maturation process. This differentiation increases as gonads grow. Furthermore, oocytes are at different development stages and are still highly differentiated in terms of size during ovulation. Moreover, the biochemical composition of the body and gonads was found to change. During the process of maturation, the relative fat content in the eel body decreases both in the muscles (from 21.99 ┬▒ 4.3 to 18.48 ┬▒ 3.3 %) and in gonads (from 25.76 ┬▒ 2.71 to 15.21 ┬▒ 4.7 %), with the changes in ovaries being more rapid. Protein content in muscles also decreased (from 15.98 ┬▒ 3.13 to 12.35 ┬▒ 1.6 %) during the process of female maturation. Different trends were observed for polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPA and DHA). The total amount of these acids decreased in muscles (P\0.05) but increased in ovaries (P[0.05)

    Rapid e-learning tools on the moodle platform

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    One of the most frequently highlighted problems regarding online teaching reported by teachers is the time and effort required to prepare and regularly update attractive e-content. This is particularly true for multimedia content. On the other hand, the problem often reported by students is the low aesthetic value and teachersÔÇÖ failure to produce materials that students deem to be aesthetically attractive. This article presents some suggestions on possible ways to control and manage the visual side of e-content

    Influence of polylactide modification with blowing agents on selected mechanical properties

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    The article presents research of modification of PLA with four types of blowing agents with a different decomposition characteristic. Modifications were made in both cellular extrusion and injection molding processes. The obtained results show that dosing blowing agents have the influence on mechanical properties and structure morphology. Differences in the obtained results are also visible and significant between cellular processes

    Legal and methodological aspects of genetic diagnostic tests used to select cancer patients to molecularly targeted therapies

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    Wprowadzenie w onkologii nowych terapii ukierunkowanych molekularnie spowodowa┼éo powstanie wielu laboratori├│w,kt├│re zajmuj─ů si─Ö wykrywaniem somatycznych mutacji w kom├│rkach nowotworowych, na podstawie kt├│rychkwalifikuje si─Ö chorych do r├│┼╝nych rodzaj├│w leczenia. Funkcjonowanie takich laboratori├│w powinno by─ç regulowaneprzez ┼Ťcis┼ée przepisy prawne uwzgl─Ödniaj─ůce sposoby ich zarz─ůdzania, wymogi personalne i lokalowe oraz wyposa┼╝eniew certyfikowan─ů aparatur─Ö, a testy genetyczne stosowane w diagnostyce in vitro powinny zawiera─ç znak CE/IVD.Niestety, polskie laboratoria genetyczne, z powodu braku rozwi─ůza┼ä zwi─ůzanych z finansowaniem terapeutycznychprogram├│w lekowych w chorobach nowotworowych, dzia┼éaj─ů cz─Östo niezgodnie z niekt├│rymi przepisami. R├│wnocze┼Ťniew ostatnich latach rozwin─Ö┼éy si─Ö nowe techniki biologii molekularnej i cytogenetyki (real-time PCR, FISH), kt├│rew ┼éatwy i coraz ta┼äszy spos├│b umo┼╝liwiaj─ů wiarygodne wykrycie takich zaburze┼ä genetycznych, jak mutacje w eksonach18ÔÇô21 genu EGFR, okre┼Ťlaj─ůce grup─Ö chorych, u kt├│rych stosuje si─Ö inhibitory kinazy EGFR w niedrobnokom├│rkowymraku p┼éuca, mutacje w kodonach 12, 13 i 61 genu KRAS zwi─ůzane z ma┼é─ů skuteczno┼Ťci─ů przeciwcia┼é anty-EGFR w rakujelita grubego czy nadmierna liczba kopii genu HER2 warunkuj─ůca skuteczno┼Ť─ç terapii anty-HER2 w raku piersi.Introduction of novel molecularly targeted therapies resulted in rapid development of diagnostic laboratories focusedon detection of somatic mutations in tumour cells that allow selection of patients to particular treatments. Suchlaboratories should function according to strict legislation, including their management, working space, personnelrequirements and certified equipment, and use genetic tests dedicated to in vitro diagnostics (CE/IVD marking). Unfortunately,several Polish genetic laboratories do not meet these requirements, mainly owing to the lack of financingmechanisms for therapeutic drug programs in cancer. At the same time, new reliable techniques of molecular andcytogenetic diagnostics, such as real-time PCR and FISH have been developed. These methods provide simpler andcheaper means of detecting several genetic abnormalities, such as exon 18ÔÇô21 mutations of EGFR gene, defininggroup of non-small cell lung cancer patients who benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors mutations in codons12, 13 and 61 of KRAS gene, associated with lower effectiveness of anti-EGFR antibodies in colorectal cancer, orHER2 gene amplification, predictive of the efficacy of anti-HER2 therapies in breast cancer
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