92 research outputs found

    Aggregating Crowdsourced and Automatic Judgments to Scale Up a Corpus of Anaphoric Reference for Fiction and Wikipedia Texts

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    Although several datasets annotated for anaphoric reference / coreference exist, even the largest such datasets have limitations in term of size, range of domains, coverage of anaphoric phenomena, and size of documents included. Yet, the approaches proposed to scale up anaphoric annotation haven’t so far resulted in datasets overcoming these limitations. In this paper, we introduce a new release of a corpus for anaphoric reference labelled via a game-with-a-purpose. This new release is comparable in size to the largest existing corpora for anaphoric reference due in part to substantial activity by the players, in part thanks to the use of a new resolve-and-aggregate paradigm to ‘complete’ markable annotations through the combination of an anaphoric resolver and an aggregation method for anaphoric reference. The proposed method could be adopted to greatly speed up annotation time in other projects involving games-with-a-purpose. In addition, the corpus covers genres for which no comparable size datasets exist (Fiction and Wikipedia); it covers singletons and non-referring expressions; and it includes a substantial number of long documents ( 2K in length)

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ALGORITHMS IN INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS

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    Query suggestion is an integral part of Web search engines. Data-driven approaches to query suggestion aim to identify more relevant queries to users based on term frequencies and hence cannot fully reveal the underlying semantic intent of queries. Semantic query suggestion seeks to identify relevant queries by taking semantic concepts contained in user queries into account. In this paper, we propose a machine learning approach to semantic query suggestion based on Random Forests. The presented scheme employs an optimized Random Forest algorithm based on multi-objective simulated annealing and weighted voting. In this scheme, multi-objective simulated annealing is utilized to tune the parameters of Random Forests algorithm, i.e. the number of trees forming the ensemble and the number of features to split at each node. In addition, the weighted voting is utilized to combine the predictions of trees based on their predictive performance. The predictive performance of the proposed scheme is compared to conventional classification algorithms (such as Naive Bayes, logistic regression, support vector machines, Random Forest) and ensemble learning methods (such as AdaBoost, Bagging and Random Subspace). The experimental results on semantic query suggestion prove the superiority of the proposed scheme

    Progression in a Language Annotation Game with a Purpose

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    Within traditional games design, incorporating progressivedifficulty is considered of fundamental importance. But de-spite the widespread intuition that progression could haveclear benefits in Games-With-A-Purpose (GWAPs)–e.g., fortraining non-expert annotators to produce more complexjudgements– progression is not in fact a prominent featureof GWAPs; and there is even less evidence on its effects. Inthis work we present an approach to progression in GWAPsthat generalizes to different annotation tasks with minimal, ifany, dependency on gold annotated data. Using this methodwe observe a statistically significant increase in accuracy overrandomly showing items to annotators

    Adopting systematic evaluation benchmarks in operational settings

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    Evaluationofinformationsystemsincommercialandindustrialsettings differs from academic evaluation of methodology in important ways. Those dif- ferences have to do with differing organisational priorities between practice and research. Some of those priorities can be adjusted, others must be taken into account, to be able to include evaluation into an operational development pipeline.QC 20201126</p

    The design of a clicker game for text labelling

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    Games for text annotation / labelling are becoming more common, but it's difficult to find a mechanics that fits. In this work we discuss a clicker game that can support text annotation. We believe this type of game is uniquely suited to addressing some of the challenges faced by games featuring text annotation as a core task

    Regulating craving by anticipating positive and negative outcomes : a multivariate pattern analysis and network connectivity approach

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    During self-control, we may resist short-term temptations in order to reach a favorable future (e.g., resisting cake to stay healthy). The neural basis of self-control is typically attributed to “cold,” unemotional cognitive control mechanisms which inhibit affect-related regions via the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we investigate the neural underpinnings of regulating cravings by mentally evoking the positive consequences of resisting a temptation (e.g., being healthy) as opposed to evoking the negative consequences of giving in to a temptation (e.g., becoming overweight). It is conceivable that when using these types of strategies, regions associated with emotional processing [e.g., striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)] are involved in addition to control-related prefrontal and parietal regions. Thirty-one participants saw pictures of unhealthy snacks in the fMRI scanner and, depending on the trial, regulated their craving by thinking of the positive consequences of resisting, or the negative consequences of not resisting. In a control condition, they anticipated the pleasure of eating and thus, allowed the craving to occur (now-condition). In line with previous studies, we found activation of a cognitive control network during self-regulation. In the negative future thinking condition, the insula was more active than in the positive condition, while there were no activations that were stronger in the positive (> negative) future thinking condition. However, additionally, multivariate pattern analysis showed that during craving regulation, information about the valence of anticipated emotions was present in the vmPFC, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the insula. Moreover, a network including vmPFC and PCC showed higher connectivity during the positive (> negative) future thinking condition. Since these regions are often associated with affective processing, these findings suggest that “hot,” affective processes may, at least in certain circumstances, play a role in self-control

    Regulating Craving by Anticipating Positive and Negative Outcomes: A Multivariate Pattern Analysis and Network Connectivity Approach

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    During self-control, we may resist short-term temptations in order to reach a favorable future (e.g., resisting cake to stay healthy). The neural basis of self-control is typically attributed to “cold,” unemotional cognitive control mechanisms which inhibit affect-related regions via the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we investigate the neural underpinnings of regulating cravings by mentally evoking the positive consequences of resisting a temptation (e.g., being healthy) as opposed to evoking the negative consequences of giving in to a temptation (e.g., becoming overweight). It is conceivable that when using these types of strategies, regions associated with emotional processing [e.g., striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)] are involved in addition to control-related prefrontal and parietal regions. Thirty-one participants saw pictures of unhealthy snacks in the fMRI scanner and, depending on the trial, regulated their craving by thinking of the positive consequences of resisting, or the negative consequences of not resisting. In a control condition, they anticipated the pleasure of eating and thus, allowed the craving to occur (now-condition). In line with previous studies, we found activation of a cognitive control network during self-regulation. In the negative future thinking condition, the insula was more active than in the positive condition, while there were no activations that were stronger in the positive (&gt; negative) future thinking condition. However, additionally, multivariate pattern analysis showed that during craving regulation, information about the valence of anticipated emotions was present in the vmPFC, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the insula. Moreover, a network including vmPFC and PCC showed higher connectivity during the positive (&gt; negative) future thinking condition. Since these regions are often associated with affective processing, these findings suggest that “hot,” affective processes may, at least in certain circumstances, play a role in self-control

    Anticipating the good and the bad : a study on the neural correlates of bivalent emotion anticipation and their malleability via attentional deployment

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    In everyday life, we often deliberate about affective outcomes of decisions which can be described as ambivalent; i.e. positive and negative at the same time. For example, when looking forward to meet a dear friend at her/his favorite concert although one dislikes the music that is being performed. Thus, anticipation of bivalent emotions and their volitional regulation is an important ingredient of everyday choices. However, previous studies investigating neural substrates involved in anticipating emotional events mostly focused on anticipating either negative emotions (punishment) or positive emotions (reward) in isolation, thus inducing either of them separately. Furthermore, these studies rather focused on the effortful down-regulation of affect (i.e. reducing negative or positive affect), whereas such conflict situations may also require us to deploy attention on and thereby upregulate anticipated emotions in order to resolve a decision conflict (e.g., by focusing on positive consequences while orienting away from negative consequences of that same situation). To address this gap, we performed a series of three fMRI-experiments using simple visual and auditory stimuli in order to (i) determine the neural correlates involved when anticipating a bivalent affective outcome that is both positive and negative at the same time – related to a conflict situation and (ii) investigate their malleability during anticipation via voluntary emotion regulation using attentional focusing. In these studies, we (i) demonstrate that brain areas involved in anticipating positive (ventral striatum) and negative (anterior insula) emotional events are co-activated when anticipating the occurrence of both punishment and reward at the same time and (ii) provide evidence that attention on either the positive or the negative correlates with a shift in activations of these co-activated neural networks and associated anticipated emotions towards either the positive (increased activity in ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex) or the negative (increased activity in insula) aspect of the upcoming bivalent outcome. In summary, we provide self-report and neural evidence for the assumption that affective brain systems associated with the processing of bivalent anticipated emotions can be voluntarily controlled by cognitive emotion regulation strategies

    Social Search

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    Today, most people find what they are looking for online by using search engines such as Google, Bing, or Baidu. Modern web search engines have evolved from their roots in information retrieval to developing new ways to cope with the unique nature of web search. In this chapter, we review recent research that aims to make search a more social activity by combining readily available social signals with various strategies for using these signals to influence or adapt more conventional search results. The chapter begins by framing the social search landscape in terms of the sources of data available and the ways in which this can be leveraged before, during, and after search. This includes a number of detailed case studies that serve to mark important milestones in the evolution of social search research and practice.Science Foundation IrelandInsight Research Centr
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