913 research outputs found

    Determinants of Economic Growth in East Asia: A Linear Regression Model

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    The level of economic growth for a country represents many aspects of life in that country. These aspects range from the strengths or weaknesses of macroeconomic policy to the quality of life for the average citizen. High or stable levels of economic growth are associated with very productive economies, higher GDP per capita and higher standards of living. However, low levels of economic growth are linked to low levels of productivity, poor living conditions and stagnant markets. High levels of economic growth are clearly desirable

    Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion Method Indicates Absence of Antimicrobial Properties in Ariolimax columbianus Mucus

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    Antibiotic resistance is a rapidly accelerating epidemic demanding novel approaches. Gastropod mucus has been shown to possess antimicrobial properties and could potentially be used as an ingredient in antibiotic development. However, whether the mucus of Ariolimax columbianus, the banana slug, also displays antimicrobial properties is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the mucus of A. columbianus is resistant to Escherichia coli (E.coli), Streptococcus aureus (S.aureus), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.pneumoniae), three medically relevant strains of bacteria. Specimens were collected from a coniferous forest and isolated for downstream mucus extraction. We spread uniform concentrations of our bacteria on Mueller-Hinton agar plates and subjected them to a Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion test by treating them with either discs dipped in mucus or discs dipped in mucus and HBSS. Zones of inhibition did not form on the plates after subjecting the bacteria to either treatment. While this study was limited to a few taxa and one experimental approach, our study suggests that gastropod mucus may not have a generalized scope of antimicrobial activity. Rather, antimicrobial activity of mucus may be more specific to taxa encountered by the slugs in their redwood forest habitat. Our results can be used to refine mucus extraction methods for A. columbianus in future studies that seek to investigate the potential of mucus for biotechnological applications

    The impact of extended shifts on strain‐based work–life conflict: A qualitative analysis of the role of context on temporal processes of retroactive and anticipatory spillover

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    Twelve‐h shifts can facilitate 24‐h service provision and are often implemented in pursuit of financial goals. Existing evidence on the benefits of extended shifts is mixed. This study examines the impact of extended shifts on employee strain in a large mental healthcare organisation in England. Semi‐structured interviews were conducted with nurses and healthcare assistants at 6 and 12 months intervals(n=70). Findings illustrate how extended shift patterns have a profound negative effect on high demands already confronting mental health staff, shaping spillover of strain. Analysis contributes to development of strain‐based work–life conflict theory by conceptualising spillover as temporal and iterative. We argue theory should differentiate between retroactive (backward facing) and anticipatory (forward facing) spillover processes. Using context as a lens and identification of new dimensions to strain‐based spillover aids interpretation of differential effects of extended shifts across settings. The study discusses implications for organisations, recovery and scheduling of shift work

    One hundred forty-six: the score for a music and modern dance theatre production about the Triangle shirtwaist factory fire of 1911

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    One Hundred Forty-Six is a music and dance theater production portraying an artistic memorial to the victims, tragedy, and progress of the historical Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire of March 25, 1911. The music, composed by Elizabeth L. Kowalski, was scored for string quartet with added electronics. Images and sounds of textile factory work and the events of the fire and memorial are communicated throughout the music. The score is accompanied here by a written document explaining the work. One Hundred Forty-Six has an approximate duration of 45 minutes. The premiere was held in the UNCG Dance Theater on March 30, 2012, shortly after the 101st anniversary of the fire

    Toll-Interacting Protein in Resolving and Non-Resolving Inflammation

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    Innate leukocytes manifest dynamic and distinct inflammatory responses upon challenges with rising dosages of pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To differentiate signal strengths, innate leukocytes may utilize distinct intracellular signaling circuitries modulated by adaptor molecules. Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) is one of the critical adaptor molecules potentially playing key roles in modulating the dynamic adaptation of innate leukocytes to varying dosages of external stimulants. While Tollip may serve as a negative regulator of nuclear factor Îș of activated B cells signaling pathway in cells challenged with higher dosages of LPS, it acts as a positive regulator for low-grade chronic inflammation in leukocytes programmed by subclinical low-dosages of LPS. This review aims to discuss recent progress in our understanding of complex innate leukocyte dynamics and its relevance in the pathogenesis of resolving versus non-resolving chronic inflammatory diseases

    Corals of the genus Porites are a locally abundant component of the epibiont community on mangrove prop roots at Calabash Caye, Turneffe Atoll, Belize

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    Mangroves are generally regarded as inhospitable for corals, but recent reports suggest they provide ecological refuge for some species. We surveyed diverse mangrove habitats on Turneffe Atoll, Belize, documenting 127 colonies of Porites divaricata (Thin Finger Coral) along 1858 m of mangrove prop roots at Calabash Caye and a much more diverse coral assemblage at Crooked Creek. At Calabash, corals were highly clumped, and varied widely in size and morphology, including large well-arborized colonies, encrusting forms with few branches, and new recruits with no branches, suggesting an age-structuredpopulation exhibiting extensive morphological plasticity. The data described here contributeto an emerging picture of mangroves as potentially critical habitat for many Caribbeancoral species.Accepted manuscrip

    Peripheral Immune Response Following Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a leading contributor to long-term neurological damage. Though TBI is a leading cause of death and neurological damage worldwide, there exists no therapeutic treatments to alleviate deleterious secondary injury due to neuroinflammation. The continuum of pro- and anti-inflammatory response elicited by TBI is suggested to play a key role in the outcome of TBI; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. This chapter explores rodent models of injury used to study the disease pathology of TBI, as well as the major contributions of the peripheral immune response following injury. Further, this chapter discusses the influence of individual immune cell types on neuroinflammation following TBI, focusing on peripheral monocyte/macrophages, their polarization state, and the current literature surrounding their behavior within the TBI milieu. Finally, cell-to-cell contact regulators that effect peripheral-induced neuroinflammation and may serve as novel targets for therapeutics will be highlighted