358 research outputs found

    KNN vs. Bluecat—Machine Learning vs. Classical Statistics

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    Uncertainty is inherent in the modelling of any physical processes. Regarding hydrological modelling, the uncertainty has multiple sources including the measurement errors of the stresses (the model inputs), the measurement errors of the hydrological process of interest (the observations against which the model is calibrated), the model limitations, etc. The typical techniques to assess this uncertainty (e.g., Monte Carlo simulation) are computationally expensive and require specific preparations for each individual application (e.g., selection of appropriate probability distribution). Recently, data-driven methods have been suggested that attempt to estimate the uncertainty of a model simulation based exclusively on the available data. In this study, two data-driven methods were employed, one based on machine learning techniques, and one based on statistical approaches. These methods were tested in two real-world case studies to obtain conclusions regarding their reliability. Furthermore, the flexibility of the machine learning method allowed assessing more complex sampling schemes for the data-driven estimation of the uncertainty. The anatomisation of the algorithmic background of the two methods revealed similarities between them, with the background of the statistical method being more theoretically robust. Nevertheless, the results from the case studies indicated that both methods perform equivalently well. For this reason, data-driven methods can become a valuable tool for practitioners

    A rainfall disaggregation scheme for sub-hourly time scales: coupling a Bartlett-Lewis based model with adjusting procedures

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    Many hydrological applications, such as flood studies, require the use of long rainfall data at fine time scales varying from daily down to 1 min time step. However, in the real world there is limited availability of data at sub-hourly scales. To cope with this issue, stochastic disaggregation techniques are typically employed to produce possible, statistically consistent, rainfall events that aggregate up to the field data collected at coarser scales. A methodology for the stochastic disaggregation of rainfall at fine time scales was recently introduced, combining the Bartlett-Lewis process to generate rainfall events along with adjusting procedures to modify the lower-level variables (i.e., hourly) so as to be consistent with the higher-level one (i.e., daily). In the present paper, we extend the aforementioned scheme, initially designed and tested for the disaggregation of daily rainfall into hourly depths, for any sub-hourly time scale. In addition, we take advantage of the recent developments in Poisson-cluster processes incorporating in the methodology a Bartlett-Lewis model variant that introduces dependence between cell intensity and duration in order to capture the variability of rainfall at sub-hourly time scales. The disaggregation scheme is implemented in an R package, named HyetosMinute, to support disaggregation from daily down to 1-min time scale. The applicability of the methodology was assessed on a 5-min rainfall records collected in Bochum, Germany, comparing the performance of the above mentioned model variant against the original Bartlett-Lewis process (non-random with 5 parameters). The analysis shows that the disaggregation process reproduces adequately the most important statistical characteristics of rainfall at wide range of time scales, while the introduction of the model with dependent intensity-duration results in a better performance in terms of skewness, rainfall extremes and dry proportions

    A parametric rule for planning and management of multiple-reservoir systems

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    Abstract. A parametric rule for multireservoir system operation is formulated and tested. It is a generalization of the well-known space rule to simultaneously account for various system operating goals in addition to the standard goal of avoiding unnecessary spills, including: avoidance of leakage losses, avoidance of conveyance problems, the impact of the reservoir system topology, and assurance of satisfying secondary uses. Theoretical values of the rule’s parameters for each one of these isolated goals are derived. In practice, parameters are evaluated to optimize one or more objective functions selected by the user. The rule is embedded in a simulation model so that optimization requires repeated simulations of the system operation with specific values of the parameters each time. The rule is tested on the case of the multi-reservoir water supply system of the city of Athens, Greece, which is driven by all of the operating goals listed above. Two problems at the system design level are tackled. First, the total release from the system is maximized for a selected level of failure probability. Second, the annual operating cost is minimized for given levels of water demand and failure probability. A detailed simulation model is used in the case study. Sensitivity analysis to the rule’s parameters revealed a subset of insensitive parameters that allowed for rule simplification. Finally, the rule is validated through comparison with a number of heuristic rules also applied to the test case. 2 1