40 research outputs found

    The role of primary health care in long-term care facilities during the COVID-19 pandemic in 30 European countries : a retrospective descriptive study (Eurodata study)

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    Background and aim:Primary health care (PHC) supported long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in attending COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study is to describe the role of PHC in LTCFs in Europe during the early phase of the pandemic.Methods:Retrospective descriptive study from 30 European countries using data from September 2020 collected with an ad hoc semi-structured questionnaire. Related variables are SARS-CoV-2 testing, contact tracing, follow-up, additional testing, and patient care.Results:Twenty-six out of the 30 European countries had PHC involvement in LTCFs during the COVID-19 pandemic. PHC participated in initial medical care in 22 countries, while, in 15, PHC was responsible for SARS-CoV-2 test along with other institutions. Supervision of individuals in isolation was carried out mostly by LTCF staff, but physical examination or symptom's follow-up was performed mainly by PHC.Conclusion:PHC has participated in COVID-19 pandemic assistance in LTCFs in coordination with LTCF staff, public health officers, and hospitals.Peer reviewe

    Effects of Metallicity on the Instability Mass Ratio of Low Mass Contact Binary Systems

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    The orbital stability of contact binary systems has been receiving considerable attention recently. Theoretical studies indicate that merger is likely to occur at very low mass ratios, but the actual mass ratio at which merger may take place is likely to be variable and dependent on the mass of the primary. We consider the effects of metal content on the orbital stability of contact binary systems by modelling the gyration radius of a rotating and tidally distorted primary component at various values of metallicity in the range -1.25 to +0.5. We determine the instability mass ratio range for contact binary systems with a low mass primary in the range 0.6M(sun) to 1.4M(sun) at various metallicity levels and show that systems with low metallicity have an instability mass ratio lower than those with higher metal content and therefore are likely to be more stable. We illustrate the effect through light curve analysis of two otherwise very similar contact binary systems, except for different metallicity. While both would be considered unstable if metallicity was not taken into consideration, only one remains in that category after appropriate adjustments based on metallicity have been made.Comment: 9 pages, 7 Figures and 5 Tables Accepted Monthly Notices of Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS

    Silicon Differently Affects Apoplastic Binding of Excess Boron in Wheat and Sunflower Leaves

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    Monocots and dicots differ in their boron (B) requirement, but also in their capacity to accumulate silicon (Si). Although an ameliorative effect of Si on B toxicity has been reported in various crops, differences among monocots and dicots are not clear, in particular in light of their ability to retain B in the leaf apoplast. In hydroponic experiments under controlled conditions, we studied the role of Si in the compartmentation of B within the leaves of wheat (Triticum vulgare L.) as a model of a high-Si monocot and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a model of a low-Si dicot, with the focus on the leaf apoplast. The stable isotopes 10B and 11B were used to investigate the dynamics of cell wall B binding capacity. In both crops, the application of Si did not affect B concentration in the root, but significantly decreased the B concentration in the leaves. However, the application of Si differently influenced the binding capacity of the leaf apoplast for excess B in wheat and sunflower. In wheat, whose capacity to retain B in the leaf cell walls is lower than in sunflower, the continuous supply of Si is crucial for an enhancement of high B tolerance in the shoot. On the other hand, the supply of Si did not contribute significantly in the extension of the B binding sites in sunflower leaves. © 2023 by the authors

    Assessment of Sex-Specific Toxicity and Physiological Responses to Thymol in a Common Bean Pest Acanthoscelides obtectus Say

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    Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), is one of the most important pests of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. Without appropriate management it may cause significant seed loss in storages. In search for means of environmentally safe and effective protection of beans we assessed biological activity of thymol, an oxygenated monoterpene present in essential oils of many aromatic plants. We studied contact toxicity of thymol on bean seeds and its effects on adult longevity and emergence in F1 generation. Furthermore, we determined acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), mixed-function oxidase (MFO), carboxylesterases (CarE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in response to 24 h exposure of beetles to sublethal and lethal thymol concentrations. Our results showed that thymol decreased adult survival, longevity and percentage of adult emergence. Higher median lethal concentration (LC50) was recorded in females indicating their higher tolerance comparing to males. Overall, activities of SOD, CAT and CarE increased at sublethal and MFO increased at both sublethal and lethal thymol concentrations. On the other hand, GST and AChE activities decreased along with the increase in thymol concentrations from sublethal (1/5 of LC50, 1/2 of LC50) to lethal (LC50). Enzyme responses to the presence of thymol on bean seed were sex-specific. In the control group females had lower CarE and higher SOD, CAT and GST activity than males. In treatment groups, females had much higher CAT activity and much lower CarE activity than males. Our results contribute to deeper understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying thymol toxicity and tolerance which should be taken into account in future formulation of a thymol-based insecticide

    A Delphi Consensus report from the "Prolonged Air Leak: A Survey" study group on prevention and management of postoperative air leaks after minimally invasive anatomical resections

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    OBJECTIVES This study reports the results of an international expert consensus process evaluating the assessment of intraoperative air leaks (IAL) and treatment of postoperative prolonged air leaks (PAL) utilizing a Delphi process, with the aim of helping standardization and improving practice. METHODS A panel of 45 questions was developed and submitted to an international working group of experts in minimally invasive lung cancer surgery. Modified Delphi methodology was used to review responses, including 3 rounds of voting. The consensus was defined a priori as >50% agreement among the experts. Clinical practice standards were graded as recommended or highly recommended if 50-74% or >75% of the experts reached an agreement, respectively. RESULTS A total of 32 experts from 18 countries completed the questionnaires in all 3 rounds. Respondents agreed that PAL are defined as >5 days and that current risk models are rarely used. The consensus was reached in 33/45 issues (73.3%). IAL were classified as mild (400 ml/min; 74%). If mild IAL are detected, 68% do not treat; if moderate, consensus was not; if severe, 90% favoured treatment. CONCLUSIONS This expert consensus working group reached an agreement on the majority of issues regarding the detection and management of IAL and PAL. In the absence of prospective, randomized evidence supporting most of these clinical decisions, this document may serve as a guideline to reduce practice variation

    Preparation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and their transfer into sensing elements

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    Semiconducting metal oxides are widely used for solar cells, poto-catalysis, bio-active materials and gas sensors. Besides the material properties of the used semiconductor,the specific surface topology of the sensor determines the device performance. We investigate the preparation and transfer suitable metals onto LIPPS structures on glass for gas sensing applications

    A Delphi Consensus report from the "Prolonged Air Leak: A Survey" study group on prevention and management of postoperative air leaks after minimally invasive anatomical resections

    No full text
    Objectives: This study reports the results of an international expert consensus process evaluating the assessment of intraoperative air leaks (IAL) and treatment of postoperative prolonged air leaks (PAL) utilizing a Delphi process, with the aim of helping standardization and improving practice. Methods: A panel of 45 questions was developed and submitted to an international working group of experts in minimally invasive lung cancer surgery. Modified Delphi methodology was used to review responses, including 3 rounds of voting. The consensus was defined a priori as >50% agreement among the experts. Clinical practice standards were graded as recommended or highly recommended if 50-74% or >75% of the experts reached an agreement, respectively. Results: A total of 32 experts from 18 countries completed the questionnaires in all 3 rounds. Respondents agreed that PAL are defined as >5 days and that current risk models are rarely used. The consensus was reached in 33/45 issues (73.3%). IAL were classified as mild (<100 ml/min; 81%), moderate (100-400 ml/min; 71%) and severe (>400 ml/min; 74%). If mild IAL are detected, 68% do not treat; if moderate, consensus was not; if severe, 90% favoured treatment. Conclusions: This expert consensus working group reached an agreement on the majority of issues regarding the detection and management of IAL and PAL. In the absence of prospective, randomized evidence supporting most of these clinical decisions, this document may serve as a guideline to reduce practice variation

    Repellent activity of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) and Tanacetum vulgare (L.) essential oils against Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)

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    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is one of the most destructive pest species to have developed resistance to most chemical insecticides. We determined the composition and evaluated the potential of Tanacetum parthenium L. and Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae family) essential oil (EO) application as an alternative eco-friendly control strategy against L. decemlineata. We assessed the antifeedant activity for L. decemlineata larvae and adults by estimating the damage to potato leaves treated with three concentrations of EOs dissolved in ethanol (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5%). Results showed that T. parthenium EO was more effective against larvae, and T. vulgare was more effective against adults. In an olfactometer assay, the time required to choose an untreated leaf disc did not depend on the Tanacetum species, or life stage examined. However, the concentration of EO exhibited a significant effect on the behaviour of both developmental stages. At higher EO concentrations, both third instar larvae and adults require less time to choose an untreated leaf disc. Additionally, T. parthenium EO provoked more rapid movement away from the treated leaf disc than T. vulgare, especially at the highest concentration. Successful modification of L. decemlineata behaviour by the two Tanacetum oils suggests that they possess the potential for use in potato protection

    Preparation and gas-sensing properties of very thin sputtered NiO films

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    We present results on very thin NiO films which are able to detect 3 ppm of acetone, toluene and n-butyl acetate in synthetic air and to operate at 300°C. NiO films with 25 and 50 nm thicknesses were prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering on alumina substrates previously coated by Pt layers as heater and as interdigitated electrodes. Annealed NiO films are indexed to the (fcc) crystalline structure of NiO and their calculated grain sizes are in the range from 22 to 27 nm. Surface morphology of the examined samples was influenced by a rough and compact granular structure of alumina substrate. Nanoporous NiO film is formed by an agglomeration of small grains with different shapes while they are created on every alumina grain

    Potential of Essential Oils from Anise, Dill and Fennel Seeds for the Gypsy Moth Control

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    The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)) is a serious pest of hardwood forests. In the search for an environmentally safe means of its control, we assessed the impact of different concentrations of essential oils (EOs) from the seeds of three Apiaceae plants (anise Pimpinella anisum, dill Anethum graveolens, and fennel Foeniculum vulgare) on behavior, mortality, molting and nutritional physiology of gypsy moth larvae (GML). EOs efficacy was compared with commercial insecticide NeemAzal(R)-T/S (neem). The main compounds in the Eos were trans-anethole in anise; carvone, limonene, and alpha-phellandrene in dill; and trans-anethole and fenchone in fennel seed. At 1% EOs concentration, anise and fennel were better antifeedants and all three EOs were more toxic than neem. Neem was superior in delaying 2nd to 3rd larval molting. In the 4th instar, 0.5%, anise and fennel EOs decreased relative consumption rate more than neem, whereas all three EOs were more effective in reducing growth rate, approximate digestibility and efficiency of conversion of food into body mass leading to higher metabolic costs to GML. Decrease in consumption and metabolic parameters compared to control GML confirmed that adverse effects of the EOs stem from both pre- and post-ingestive mechanisms. The results indicate the potential of three EOs to be used for gypsy moth control
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