115 research outputs found

    Quantification and ACD: Evidence from Real-Time Sentence Processing

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    Data files and documentation available at http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/76676Quantifiers, unlike proper names or definite descriptions, cannot be given the semantics of referring expressions. This fact has triggered a long standing debate in formal semantics and syntax as to the combinatorial means by which quantifiers are integrated into a sentence. The present paper contributes to this debate through an investigation of quantifier comprehension during real-time sentence processing. We present evidence showing that two potentially independent processes—the integration of a quantifier in object position and the resolution of antecedent-contained deletion (ACD)—are linked. Our data show, more specifically, that the resolution of a downstream ACD site is facilitated during real-time sentence processing if the upstream DP hosting the ACD site is quantificational but not if it is definite. We discuss these findings in the context of a QUANTIFIER RAISING based approach and a type-shifting-based approach to quantifier integration. We argue that facilitation of ACD resolution by an upstream quantifier is only expected by theories, such as the QUANTIFIER RAISING approach, which employ the same mechanism for both processes. We then compare the QUANTIFIER RAISING-based account with a non-grammatical experience-based approach to our data, which attempts to explain the findings in terms of corpus frequencies. Although we cannot rule out such an alternative at this stage, we offer reasons to believe that an account that exploits QUANTIFIER RAISING has an explanatory advantage

    Localizing Pain Matrix and Theory of Mind networks with both verbal and non-verbal stimuli

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    Functional localizer tasks allow researchers to identify brain regions in each individual's brain, using a combination of anatomical and functional constraints. In this study, we compare three social cognitive localizer tasks, designed to efficiently identify regions in the "Pain Matrix," recruited in response to a person's physical pain, and the "Theory of Mind network," recruited in response to a person's mental states (i.e. beliefs and emotions). Participants performed three tasks: first, the verbal false-belief stories task; second, a verbal task including stories describing physical pain versus emotional suffering; and third, passively viewing a non-verbal animated movie, which included segments depicting physical pain and beliefs and emotions. All three localizers were efficient in identifying replicable, stable networks in individual subjects. The consistency across tasks makes all three tasks viable localizers. Nevertheless, there were small reliable differences in the location of the regions and the pattern of activity within regions, hinting at more specific representations. The new localizers go beyond those currently available: first, they simultaneously identify two functional networks with no additional scan time, and second, the non-verbal task extends the populations in whom functional localizers can be applied. These localizers will be made publicly available.National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant 1R01 MH096914-01A1

    From heart to mind: Linking interoception, emotion, and theory of mind

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    Theory of Mind (ToM) is traditionally characterized as the ability to represent mental states. Such a characterization leaves little room for studying individual differences in ToM – individuals either can, or cannot, represent mental states – and this binary classification cannot quantify the subtle individual differences observed in typical and atypical populations. In recognition of this problem, attempts have been made to provide a more detailed characterization of the constituent psychological processes which support the representation of mental states, and the neurocomputational principles underpinning ToM, in order to identify the source of individual differences. A recent model is of interest as it forwards the novel argument that interoception, perception of the internal state of the body, is a fundamental component of ToM. Here we report the first test of the link between interoception and ToM

    Neural computations underpinning the strategic management of influence in advice giving

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    Research on social influence has focused mainly on the target of influence (e.g., consumer and voter); thus, the cognitive and neurobiological underpinnings of the source of the influence (e.g., politicians and salesmen) remain unknown. Here, in a three-sided advice-giving game, two advisers competed to influence a client by modulating their own confidence in their advice about which lottery the client should choose. We report that advisers’ strategy depends on their level of influence on the client and their merit relative to one another. Moreover, blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the temporo-parietal junction is modulated by adviser’s current level of influence on the client, and relative merit prediction error affects activity in medial-prefrontal cortex. Both types of social information modulate ventral striatum response. By demonstrating what happens in our mind and brain when we try to influence others, these results begin to explain the biological mechanisms that shape inter-individual differences in social conduct
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