126 research outputs found

### Efficient microwave-induced optical frequency conversion

Frequency conversion process is studied in a medium of atoms with a $\Lambda$
configuration of levels, where transition between two lower states is driven by
a microwave field. In this system, conversion efficiency can be very high by
virtue of the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT).
Depending on intensity of the microwave field, two regimes of EIT are realized:
''dark-state'' EIT for the weak field, and Autler-Townes-type EIT for the
strong one. We study both cases via analytical and numerical solution and find
optimum conditions for the conversion.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figure

### Generation of continuous-wave THz radiation by use of quantum interference

We propose a scheme for generation of continuous-wave THz radiation. The
scheme requires a medium where three discrete states in a $\Lambda$
configuration can be selected, with the THz-frequency transition between the
two lower metastable states. We consider the propagation of three-frequency
continuous-wave electromagnetic (e.m.) radiation through a $\Lambda$ medium.
Under resonant excitation, the medium absorption can be strongly reduced due to
quantum interference of transitions, while the nonlinear susceptibility is
enhanced. This leads to very efficient energy transfer between the e.m. waves
providing a possibility for THz generation. We demonstrate that the photon
conversion efficiency is approaching unity in this technique.Comment: 18 pages, 4 figure

### Internal stresses in steel plate generated by shape memory alloy inserts

Neutron strain scanning was employed to investigate the internal stress fields in steel plate coupons with embedded prestrained superelastic NiTi shape memory alloy inserts. Strain fields in steel were evaluated at T = 21 Â°C and 130 Â°C on virgin coupons as well as on mechanically and thermally fatigued coupons. Internal stress fields were evaluated by direct calculation of principal stress components from the experimentally measured lattice strains as well as by employing an inverse finite element modeling approach. It is shown that if the NiTi inserts are embedded into the elastic steel matrix following a carefully designed technological procedure, the internal stress fields vary with temperature in a reproducible and predictable way. It is estimated that this mechanism of internal stress generation can be safely applied in the temperature range from â20 Â°C to 150 Â°C and is relatively resistant to thermal and mechanical fatigue. The predictability and fatigue endurance of the mechanism are of essential importance for the development of future smart metal matrix composites or smart structures with embedded shape memory alloy components

### Infrared generation in low-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures via quantum coherence

A new scheme for infrared generation without population inversion between
subbands in quantum-well and quantum-dot lasers is presented and documented by
detailed calculations. The scheme is based on the simultaneous generation at
three frequencies: optical lasing at the two interband transitions which take
place simultaneously, in the same active region, and serve as the coherent
drive for the IR field. This mechanism for frequency down-conversion does not
rely upon any ad hoc assumptions of long-lived coherences in the semiconductor
active medium. And it should work efficiently at room temperature with
injection current pumping. For optimized waveguide and cavity parameters, the
intrinsic efficiency of the down-conversion process can reach the limiting
quantum value corresponding to one infrared photon per one optical photon. Due
to the parametric nature of IR generation, the proposed inversionless scheme is
especially promising for long-wavelength (far- infrared) operation.Comment: 4 pages, 1 Postscript figure, Revtex style. Replacement corrects a
printing error in the authors fiel

### Sub-Doppler cooling of three-level A Atoms in space-shifted standing light waves

We present an investigation of an alternative mechanism for sub-Doppler cooling of atoms, based on coherent population transfer in three-level LAMBDA systems. The mechanism considered is that of a LAMBDA atom interacting with two standing light waves with a mutual spatial phase shift phi not-equal 0. The spatial dependence of the level populations of the LAMBDA atom for different values of phi is presented. For phi not-equal 0, this clearly demonstrates coherent population transfer in an atom with transverse motion along the space-shifted nodes and antinodes of the two standing waves. We show that this allows translational temperatures well below the Doppler limit T(D) = hgammaBAR/k(B) to be achieved

### New Consequences of Induced Transparency in a Double-Lambda scheme: Destructive Interference In Four-wave Mixing

We investigate a four-state system interacting with long and short laser
pulses in a weak probe beam approximation. We show that when all lasers are
tuned to the exact unperturbed resonances, part of the four-wave mixing (FWM)
field is strongly absorbed. The part which is not absorbed has the exact
intensity required to destructively interfere with the excitation pathway
involved in producing the FWM state. We show that with this three-photon
destructive interference, the conversion efficiency can still be as high as
25%. Contrary to common belief,our calculation shows that this process, where
an ideal one-photon electromagnetically induced transparency is established, is
not most suitable for high efficiency conversion. With appropriate
phase-matching and propagation distance, and when the three-photon destructive
interference does not occur, we show that the photon flux conversion efficiency
is independent of probe intensity and can be close to 100%. In addition, we
show clearly that the conversion efficiency is not determined by the maximum
atomic coherence between two lower excited states, as commonly believed. It is
the combination of phase-matching and constructive interference involving the
two terms arising in producing the mixing wave that is the key element for the
optimized FWM generation. Indeed, in this scheme no appreciable excited state
is produced, so that the atomic coherence between states |0> and |2> is always
very small.Comment: Submitted to Phys. Rev. A, 7 pages, 4 figure

### $\frac{\lambda}{8}$-period optical potentials

A Raman configuration of counterpropagating traveling wave fields, one of
which is $lin\bot lin$ polarized and the other $lin\Vert lin$ polarized, is
shown to lead to optical potentials having $\frac{\lambda}{8}$ periodicity.
Such optical potentials may be used to construct optical lattices having $%
\frac{\lambda}{8}$ periodicity. Using numerical diagonalization, we obtain the
optical potentials for $^{\text{85}}$Rb atoms.Comment: 3 pages, 2 figure

### Atom-optics hologram in the time domain

The temporal evolution of an atomic wave packet interacting with object and
reference electromagnetic waves is investigated beyond the weak perturbation of
the initial state. It is shown that the diffraction of an ultracold atomic beam
by the inhomogeneous laser field can be interpreted as if the beam passes
through a three-dimensional hologram, whose thickness is proportional to the
interaction time. It is found that the diffraction efficiency of such a
hologram may reach 100% and is determined by the duration of laser pulses. On
this basis a method for reconstruction of the object image with matter waves is
offered.Comment: RevTeX, 13 pages, 8 figures; minor grammatical change

### DETERMINING REFERENCE RANGES FOR TREC AND KREC ASSAYS IN IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SCREENING OF NEWBORNS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION

In this work, we used a reference population of newborns and sampled dried blood spots on Guthrie cards of 2,739 individual samples to determine the reference intervals for TRECs and KRECs values, in order to diagnose primary immunodeficiency by means of neonatal screening. The median absolute values for TRECs and KRECs were 195 (CI95%: 185-206) and 185 (CI95%: 176-197) copies per ÎŒl, respectively; the normalized value for TRECs was 2780 (CI95%: 2690-2840), and for KRECs, 2790 (CI95%: 2700-2900) copies per 2 Ă 105 copies of the albumin gene or 105 cells. The reference interval was calculated for 99 and 99.9 percentiles of total TRECs and KRECs individual values. Due to asymmetric distribution of data, the outliers were filtered off, using the Tukeyâs criterion applied after logarithmic transformation of the data. When analyzing absolute values for TREC/KREC (per ÎŒL of blood), no âdrop-downâ TRECs values were identified; for KRECs, 18 experimental values were excluded from further analysis (from 9.8 to 13.5). The outlying values were not identified among the normalized values of TRECs/KRECs. The obtained reference values for TRECs and KRECs (at the 0.1 percentile level) were, respectively, 458 and 32 per 105 cells, or 23 and 17 per ÎŒl of blood samples from neonates

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