126 research outputs found

    Efficient microwave-induced optical frequency conversion

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    Frequency conversion process is studied in a medium of atoms with a Λ\Lambda configuration of levels, where transition between two lower states is driven by a microwave field. In this system, conversion efficiency can be very high by virtue of the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Depending on intensity of the microwave field, two regimes of EIT are realized: ''dark-state'' EIT for the weak field, and Autler-Townes-type EIT for the strong one. We study both cases via analytical and numerical solution and find optimum conditions for the conversion.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figure

    Generation of continuous-wave THz radiation by use of quantum interference

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    We propose a scheme for generation of continuous-wave THz radiation. The scheme requires a medium where three discrete states in a Λ\Lambda configuration can be selected, with the THz-frequency transition between the two lower metastable states. We consider the propagation of three-frequency continuous-wave electromagnetic (e.m.) radiation through a Λ\Lambda medium. Under resonant excitation, the medium absorption can be strongly reduced due to quantum interference of transitions, while the nonlinear susceptibility is enhanced. This leads to very efficient energy transfer between the e.m. waves providing a possibility for THz generation. We demonstrate that the photon conversion efficiency is approaching unity in this technique.Comment: 18 pages, 4 figure

    Internal stresses in steel plate generated by shape memory alloy inserts

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    Neutron strain scanning was employed to investigate the internal stress fields in steel plate coupons with embedded prestrained superelastic NiTi shape memory alloy inserts. Strain fields in steel were evaluated at T = 21 °C and 130 °C on virgin coupons as well as on mechanically and thermally fatigued coupons. Internal stress fields were evaluated by direct calculation of principal stress components from the experimentally measured lattice strains as well as by employing an inverse finite element modeling approach. It is shown that if the NiTi inserts are embedded into the elastic steel matrix following a carefully designed technological procedure, the internal stress fields vary with temperature in a reproducible and predictable way. It is estimated that this mechanism of internal stress generation can be safely applied in the temperature range from −20 °C to 150 °C and is relatively resistant to thermal and mechanical fatigue. The predictability and fatigue endurance of the mechanism are of essential importance for the development of future smart metal matrix composites or smart structures with embedded shape memory alloy components

    Infrared generation in low-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures via quantum coherence

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    A new scheme for infrared generation without population inversion between subbands in quantum-well and quantum-dot lasers is presented and documented by detailed calculations. The scheme is based on the simultaneous generation at three frequencies: optical lasing at the two interband transitions which take place simultaneously, in the same active region, and serve as the coherent drive for the IR field. This mechanism for frequency down-conversion does not rely upon any ad hoc assumptions of long-lived coherences in the semiconductor active medium. And it should work efficiently at room temperature with injection current pumping. For optimized waveguide and cavity parameters, the intrinsic efficiency of the down-conversion process can reach the limiting quantum value corresponding to one infrared photon per one optical photon. Due to the parametric nature of IR generation, the proposed inversionless scheme is especially promising for long-wavelength (far- infrared) operation.Comment: 4 pages, 1 Postscript figure, Revtex style. Replacement corrects a printing error in the authors fiel

    Sub-Doppler cooling of three-level A Atoms in space-shifted standing light waves

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    We present an investigation of an alternative mechanism for sub-Doppler cooling of atoms, based on coherent population transfer in three-level LAMBDA systems. The mechanism considered is that of a LAMBDA atom interacting with two standing light waves with a mutual spatial phase shift phi not-equal 0. The spatial dependence of the level populations of the LAMBDA atom for different values of phi is presented. For phi not-equal 0, this clearly demonstrates coherent population transfer in an atom with transverse motion along the space-shifted nodes and antinodes of the two standing waves. We show that this allows translational temperatures well below the Doppler limit T(D) = hgammaBAR/k(B) to be achieved

    New Consequences of Induced Transparency in a Double-Lambda scheme: Destructive Interference In Four-wave Mixing

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    We investigate a four-state system interacting with long and short laser pulses in a weak probe beam approximation. We show that when all lasers are tuned to the exact unperturbed resonances, part of the four-wave mixing (FWM) field is strongly absorbed. The part which is not absorbed has the exact intensity required to destructively interfere with the excitation pathway involved in producing the FWM state. We show that with this three-photon destructive interference, the conversion efficiency can still be as high as 25%. Contrary to common belief,our calculation shows that this process, where an ideal one-photon electromagnetically induced transparency is established, is not most suitable for high efficiency conversion. With appropriate phase-matching and propagation distance, and when the three-photon destructive interference does not occur, we show that the photon flux conversion efficiency is independent of probe intensity and can be close to 100%. In addition, we show clearly that the conversion efficiency is not determined by the maximum atomic coherence between two lower excited states, as commonly believed. It is the combination of phase-matching and constructive interference involving the two terms arising in producing the mixing wave that is the key element for the optimized FWM generation. Indeed, in this scheme no appreciable excited state is produced, so that the atomic coherence between states |0> and |2> is always very small.Comment: Submitted to Phys. Rev. A, 7 pages, 4 figure

    λ8\frac{\lambda}{8}-period optical potentials

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    A Raman configuration of counterpropagating traveling wave fields, one of which is linlinlin\bot lin polarized and the other linlinlin\Vert lin polarized, is shown to lead to optical potentials having λ8\frac{\lambda}{8} periodicity. Such optical potentials may be used to construct optical lattices having λ8% \frac{\lambda}{8} periodicity. Using numerical diagonalization, we obtain the optical potentials for 85^{\text{85}}Rb atoms.Comment: 3 pages, 2 figure

    Atom-optics hologram in the time domain

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    The temporal evolution of an atomic wave packet interacting with object and reference electromagnetic waves is investigated beyond the weak perturbation of the initial state. It is shown that the diffraction of an ultracold atomic beam by the inhomogeneous laser field can be interpreted as if the beam passes through a three-dimensional hologram, whose thickness is proportional to the interaction time. It is found that the diffraction efficiency of such a hologram may reach 100% and is determined by the duration of laser pulses. On this basis a method for reconstruction of the object image with matter waves is offered.Comment: RevTeX, 13 pages, 8 figures; minor grammatical change

    DETERMINING REFERENCE RANGES FOR TREC AND KREC ASSAYS IN IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SCREENING OF NEWBORNS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION

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    In this work, we used a reference population of newborns and sampled dried blood spots on Guthrie cards of 2,739 individual samples to determine the reference intervals for TRECs and KRECs values, in order to diagnose primary immunodeficiency by means of neonatal screening. The median absolute values for TRECs and KRECs were 195 (CI95%: 185-206) and 185 (CI95%: 176-197) copies per μl, respectively; the normalized value for TRECs was 2780 (CI95%: 2690-2840), and for KRECs, 2790 (CI95%: 2700-2900) copies per 2 × 105 copies of the albumin gene or 105 cells. The reference interval was calculated for 99 and 99.9 percentiles of total TRECs and KRECs individual values. Due to asymmetric distribution of data, the outliers were filtered off, using the Tukey’s criterion applied after logarithmic transformation of the data. When analyzing absolute values for TREC/KREC (per μL of blood), no “drop-down” TRECs values were identified; for KRECs, 18 experimental values were excluded from further analysis (from 9.8 to 13.5). The outlying values were not identified among the normalized values of TRECs/KRECs. The obtained reference values for TRECs and KRECs (at the 0.1 percentile level) were, respectively, 458 and 32 per 105 cells, or 23 and 17 per μl of blood samples from neonates
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