208 research outputs found

    Once an entrepreneur, always an entrepreneur? Entrepreneurial identity, job characteristics, and voluntary turnover of former entrepreneurs in paid employment

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    We focus on former entrepreneurs’ employment in established firms. Understanding the retention of former entrepreneurs—those who were previously founders of business ventures—is important to firms hoping to reap the benefits of their entrepreneurial experience. We compare the duration of their retention to other employees without entrepreneurial experience and propose a theoretical model in which entrepreneurial identity and job characteristics play a central role. The time-dependent risk of voluntary turnover was estimated using survival analysis. Results from a primary survey collected from multiple firms in 2015–2018 (Study 1) reveal that former entrepreneurs quit sooner than others, and this effect was mediated by entrepreneurial identity. A second study using the NLSY79 and O*Net longitudinal dataset (Study 2) again supports this mediated relationship and further shows that the indirect effect through entrepreneurial identity was moderated such that employees with entrepreneurial identity stayed longer in jobs with favorable characteristics (i.e., high levels of work autonomy and more entrepreneurial opportunities) than other jobs. In Study 2, we were able to observe individuals’ careers over decades to capture the patterns of individual mobility—the back-and-forth exploration between businesses owned by self and others. The supplementary analysis provides additional evidence regarding turnover destinations. The findings offer implications for firms endeavoring to retain entrepreneurial talent and individuals pursuing a career that may involve both paid employment and entrepreneurship

    Women entrepreneurship and digital technologies: towards a research agenda

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    Purpose The aim of this paper is underline how the new emerging digital technologies could be of great value in expanding the opportunities for women entrepreneurship by supporting them in overcoming the constrains they face as well as in creating more favorable network environment. This is creating the conditions for a new phenomenon called Digital Women Entrepreneurship. Methodology A qualitative literature review in relation to women entrepreneurship activities and the emergence of digital technologies is performed. Findings Specifically the contribution and the impact provided by the Digital Technologies will be analyzed for women entrepreneurship. A holistic interpretative framework for analyzing Digital Women Entrepreneurship is proposed. A conceptual discussion on how the Digital Technologies opportunities could be valuable in overcoming some of the constrains women tackle in their entrepreneurship process and which are the main research streams that emerge for future investigation on the theme. Originality/value Even if the literature on Women Entrepreneurship is well covered, to our best knowledge the intersection between the two fields remains unexplored. The paper provides a contribution in this direction, identifying new trends and future directions for research. Practical implications The major implication is to advance knowledge and practice in the area of gender in management and use of Digital Technologies by focusing upon empirical research, theoretical developments, practice and current issues. Benefits are related to a better understanding of the debate on “Gender and Management” themes by reconsidering networking activities with social media

    Entrepreneurial-intention constraint model: A comparative analysis among post-graduate management students in India, Singapore and Malaysia

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    YesAlthough literature on entrepreneurship has increasingly focused on intention-based models, not much emphasis has been laid on understanding the combined effect of contextual and situational factors along with support of university environment on the formation of entrepreneurial intention among students. In an effort to make up for this shortfall, by taking Theory of Planned Behavior as basic framework, the present study seeks to understand the influence of three of the most important factors, viz. (a) endogenous barriers, (b) exogenous environment, and (c) university environment and support on the entrepreneurial intention among management students. The study sample consisted of 1,097 students, wherein 526 students were from India, 252 from Singapore, and 319 were from Malaysia. The results indicates that along with positive attitude and perceived behavioral control that directly influences entrepreneurial intention, university environment and support and exogenous environment also have an indirect but significant impact on shaping of entrepreneurial intention among students. With this, it was found that exogenous environment was found to have a negative relationship with both attitude towards behavior and perceived behavioral control for all three countries.The full-text of this article will be released for public view at the end of the publisher embargo on 2 Jun 2018

    Who intends to enroll in entrepreneurship education? Entrepreneurial self-identity as a precursor

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    Entrepreneurial self-identity is attracting increasing attention as a potentially relevant variable in explaining the entrepreneurial process. So far, most research treats entrepreneurial self-identity as a consequence of, or, at the most, as being developed through the start-up process. In this paper, in contrast, we analyze its role as a previous element that helps determine the entrepreneurial intention of individuals, the perceived usefulness of entrepreneurship education and, indirectly, their interest in participating in entrepreneurship education courses. Our hypotheses are tested on a sample of Italian university students and graduates (N=88) with no previous participation in entrepreneurship education or self-employment experience. The results clearly support the proposed model. The implications of these results, if further confirmed, are highly relevant. They indicate that there is a strong risk of self-selection bias in most entrepreneurship education evaluation studies. This is due to an element of reversed causation in which participants who already exhibit a higher entrepreneurial self-identity are more interested in entrepreneurship. At the same time, these results also suggest that professionals and public decision-makers involved in fostering entrepreneurship should pay attention to the development of this entrepreneurial self-identity in childhood and adolescence

    Bouncing back from failure: Entrepreneurial resilience and the internationalization of subsequent ventures created by serial entrepreneurs

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    This paper examines the impact over international propensity of past negative entrepreneurial experience for those who re-enter into entrepreneurial activity; referred to as resilient serial entrepreneurs. We first hypothesize on the effects over entrepreneurial re-entry that such negative past experience may have and highlight the link between the past entrepreneurial experience of resilient entrepreneurs and their subsequent propensity towards international markets. Building on insights from the generative experiential learning process of entrepreneurial activity and from cognition theories, we propose that resilient entrepreneurs who re-enter business despite having faced negative entrepreneurial experiences in the past benefit from enriched cognitive schemas leading them to greater export propensity. The proposed hypotheses are tested on a unique sample drawn from a Spanish adult population survey. Results from the sequential deductive triangulation analysis (QUAN -> qual) reveal that practical experience is an essential prerequisite for entrepreneurial learning, and that the resilience of those with negative entrepreneurial experience induces the generative entrepreneurial learning especially suitable for subsequent internationally oriented ventures.Peer ReviewedPreprin

    Entrepreneurial intention among University students in Malaysia: integrating self-determination theory and the theory of planned behavior

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    The present study endeavors to develop a deeper understanding of the motivational processes involved in intentional entrepreneurial behavior. For this purpose, it integrates the social cognitive approach of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the organismic theory of motivation of self-determination theory (SDT). More specifically, it tests the role of basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness as defined in SDT in shaping university students’ attitudes and intentions toward entrepreneurship. The sample of this study consisted of 438 (Males = 166, Females =272) 3rd and4th year university students from four Malaysian Public Universities. The results of the study show that the model strongly explains about 71% of the variance in entrepreneurial intention. Basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness have a strong indirect impact on entrepreneurial intention via their attitudinal antecedents: attitude,subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. This indicates a full-mediational model,where the attitudinal factors operated as transmitters of effects from the distal constructs ofSDT on entrepreneurial intention. These findings confirm that both SDT and the TPB provide complementary explanations of the motivational processes of entrepreneurial behavior. The study contributes to the existing knowledge by providing a theory-based understanding of the role of motivations in the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. It opens the way for future research to analyze how alternative motivations may affect new venture creation, survival and success

    Produktinnovation in Start-ups: Die Rolle der Gründungsmotivationen von Unternehmern

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    Da Unternehmertum und Innovationen stark miteinander verknüpft sind, wird in dieser Studie der Zusammenhang zwischen ursprünglichen Gründungsmotivationen von Unternehmern und deren tatsächlichen Produktinnovationen innerhalb der ersten Gründungsjahre untersucht. Basierend auf einer Stichprobe der französischen SINE Datenbank, die vom französischen Nationalen Institut für Statistik und Wirtschaftsplanung zur Verfügung gestellt wurde, wird gezeigt, dass verschiedene Gründungsmotivationen das Produktinnovationsverhalten von Start-ups positiv beeinflussen und dass Gründungsmotivationen damit auch nach der Gründung noch Folgen haben können. So zeigen die Ergebnisse, dass Gründungsmotivationen wie unternehmerisches Denken und Handeln, Verbessern der finanziellen Position, Nutzen einer Geschäftschance oder -idee und Arbeitslosigkeit einen signifikant positiven Effekt auf Produktinnovation im neu gegründeten Unternehmen ausüben

    The "why"\u80\u9d of international entrepreneurship: uncovering entrepreneurs personal values

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    Previous studies investigating the "why"\u80\u9d of entrepreneurial internationalization have focused on firm-level motivations, overlooking the relationships between firm-level and individual-level motivations and why entrepreneurs differ in the goals they intend to achieve. We investigate the role of personal values as desirable end states that motivate international entrepreneurship by functioning as superordinate cognitive structures that underlie the practical internationalization goals set by entrepreneurs. By adopting an idiographic approach based on a laddering methodology in a sample of 140 new domestic technology-based firms located in Northern Italy, we uncover and map the hierarchies of goals that motivate entrepreneurs' internationalization intentions, which are anchored in five personal values: achievement, power, self-direction, benevolence, and security. We discuss our theoretical and methodological contributions and the policy implications of our findings

    Entrepreneurial intentions and entrepreneurship education to University students in Portugal

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    [EN] This article analyzes entrepreneurial intentions and motivations that encourage university students of Tourism to create their own company. Methodology is based on an empirical study, using a questionnaire adapted from a model of Veciana and Urbano (Actitudes de los estudiantes universitarios hacia la creación de empresas: un estudio empírico comparativo entre Catalunya y Puerto Rico. El emprendedor innovador y la creación de empresas de I + D + I, University of Valencia, pp 35 58, 2004), including the desirability and viability concepts. One hundred and sixty students answered the questionnaire from a total study population of 243 official Tourism degree students of the Superior Institute of Accounting and Management of Porto. This research finds out that the university students have a very positive perception about the desire to create their own company; a 90 % of students express their desire to do it, and 83.5 % express their intention. 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