8 research outputs found

    Influence of Irradiated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells on Both Ex Vivo Proliferation of Human Natural Killer Cells and Change in Cellular Property

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    Clinical studies with adoptive immunotherapy using allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells showed feasibility, but also limitation regarding the transfused absolute cell numbers. First promising results with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as feeder cells to improve the final cell number need further optimization and investigation of the unknown controlling mechanism in the cross-talk to NK cells. We investigated the influence of irradiated autologous PBMCs to boost NK cell proliferation in the presence of OKT3 and IL-2. Our findings demonstrate a requirement for receptor–ligand interactions between feeders and NK cells to produce soluble factors that can sustain NK cell proliferation. Thus, both physical contact between feeder and NK cells, and soluble factors produced in consequence, are required to fully enhance NK cell ex vivo proliferation. This occurred with an indispensable role of the cross-talk between T cells, monocytes, and NK cells, while B cells had no further influence in supporting NK cell proliferation under these co-culture conditions. Moreover, gene expression analysis of highly proliferating and non-proliferating NK cells revealed important phenotypic changes on 5-day cultured NK cells. Actively proliferating NK cells have reduced Siglec-7 and -9 expression compared with non-proliferating and resting NK cells (day 0), independently of the presence of feeder cells. Interestingly, proliferating NK cells cultured with feeder cells contained increased frequencies of cells expressing RANKL, B7-H3, and HLA class II molecules, particularly HLA-DR, compared with resting NK cells or expanded with IL-2 only. A subset of HLA-DR expressing NK cells, co-expressing RANKL, and B7-H3 corresponded to the most proliferative population under the established co-culture conditions. Our results highlight the importance of the crosstalk between T cells, monocytes, and NK cells in autologous feeder cell-based ex vivo NK cell expansion protocols, and reveal the appearance of a highly proliferative subpopulation of NK cells (HLA-DR+RANKL+B7-H3+) with promising characteristics to extend the therapeutic potential of NK cells

    Upregulation of MMP12 and Its Activity by UVA1 in Human Skin:Potential Implications for Photoaging

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    UVA1 constitutes around 75% of the terrestrial UV radiation, and most of the output of artificial tanning sources. However, the molecular effects of UVA1 in human skin in vivo are surprisingly poorly understood. We have examined time-dependent whole-genome expression, along with mRNA and protein changes in the skin after one minimal erythema dose of spectrally pure UVA1 (50Jcm−2) and 300nm UVB (30mJcm−2). After 24hours, the genes induced to the greatest extent were those involved in extracellular matrix remodeling with both UVA1 (P=5.5e-7) and UVB (P=2.9e-22). UVA1 and UVB caused different effects on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression: UVB induced MMP1, MMP3, and MMP10 mRNA at 24hours to a much greater extent than UVA1. MMP12 induction by UVA1 at 6hours is marked and much greater than that by UVB. We have found that MMP12 mRNA induction by UVA1 resulted in expression of MMP12 protein, which is functional as an elastase. This induction of elastase activity did not occur with UVB. We hypothesize that the UVA1 induction of MMP12 mediates some of its photoaging effects, particularly by contributing to elastin degeneration in late solar elastosis. MMP12 is a good marker of UVA1 exposure

    MACSima imaging cyclic staining (MICS) technology reveals combinatorial target pairs for CAR T cell treatment of solid tumors

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    Many critical advances in research utilize techniques that combine high-resolution with high-content characterization at the single cell level. We introduce the MICS (MACSima Imaging Cyclic Staining) technology, which enables the immunofluorescent imaging of hundreds of protein targets across a single specimen at subcellular resolution. MICS is based on cycles of staining, imaging, and erasure, using photobleaching of fluorescent labels of recombinant antibodies (REAfinity Antibodies), or release of antibodies (REAlease Antibodies) or their labels (REAdye_lease Antibodies). Multimarker analysis can identify potential targets for immune therapy against solid tumors. With MICS we analysed human glioblastoma, ovarian and pancreatic carcinoma, and 16 healthy tissues, identifying the pair EPCAM/THY1 as a potential target for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for ovarian carcinoma. Using an Adapter CAR T cell approach, we show selective killing of cells only if both markers are expressed. MICS represents a new high-content microscopy methodology widely applicable for personalized medicine