24,371 research outputs found

    <i>she</i> mutants show enlarged diameter of the dorsal aorta.

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    (A,B) Overall vascular patterning of she-/- mutants is normal when compared to their sibling wild-type embryos at 28 hpf. Embryos are in kdrl:GFP background. (C-F) A wider DA is observed in she mutant embryos compared to their wild-type (she+/+) siblings at 1 and 2 dpf (28 and 48 hpf respectively). Red line indicates DA diameter. (G,H) DA is narrower in she mutants at 4 dpf compared to their siblings. (I,J) Qtracker dots were injected into the circulatory system at 2 dpf (48 hpf) stage. Wider DA is apparent in she mutants (red lines), indicating enlarged vascular lumen size. (K) Diameter of the DA and PCV at 1‚Äď4 dpf in she mutants and their wild-type siblings. * phe mutant and sibling embryos were obtained by in-crossing sheci26+/-; kdrl:GFP carriers. Embryos at 1 and 2 dpf were genotyped after imaging. Embryos at 4 dpf were separated based on the phenotype, and wild-type siblings include she+/+ and she+/- embryos at this stage. Numbers at the bottom of the bars indicate the total number of embryos analyzed.</p

    <i>she</i> mutants display pericardial edema and loss of blood circulation.

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    (A) Zebrafish SHE protein diagram. she ci26 and ci30 mutant alleles are predicted to result in a frameshift and premature stop codons. SH2 domain and consensus tyrosine ABL phosphorylation sites are shown. (B-E) In situ hybridization analysis of she expression in wild-type embryos at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hpf stages. Note its expression in the dorsal aorta (arrows), intersegmental vessels, lateral line primordium (arrowhead, B) and neuromasts (arrowheads, C-E). (F-I) In situ hybridization analysis of she expression in she mutants at 24 hpf. Note that she expression is unaffected in sheci26 embryos while it is strongly reduced in sheci30 embryos. Homozygous sheci26 mutant embryos were obtained by an incross of sheci26-/-; fli1a:she-2A-mCherry; kdrl:GFP parents (which are viable due to fli1a:she-2A-mCherry rescue) and selected for mCherry negative embryos. Wild-type control embryos were obtained by incross of sibling wt; fli1a:she-2A-mCherry parents and selected for mCherry-negative embryos. sheci30 embryos were obtained by incross of sheci30+/- parents and genotyped after in situ hybridization. 25% (10 out of 40) embryos showed strong reduction in she expression which correlated with the mutant phenotype. (J-M) Brightfield images of sheci26 and sheci30 mutant embryos and their siblings (wild-type and or heterozygous) at 4 dpf. Note the pericardial edema (arrowheads) in the mutant embryos. Embryos were obtained by the incross of heterozygous parents in kdrl:GFP background. 24.9% (265 out of 1064) and 24.2% (80 out of 330) embryos obtained in sheci26 or sheci30 incross, respectively, showed this phenotype. A subset of embryos was genotyped to confirm the correlation between the phenotype and genotype.</p

    A proposed model for SHE and ABL signaling during vascular tubulogenesis.

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    Activated ABL promotes enlarged vascular lumen through a downstream effector P-CRKL which increases endothelial cell proliferation and increases Cldn5 expression, thus affecting tight junctions and cell adhesion. Activated ABL phosphorylates SHE, which then interacts with ABL to dampen its activity resulting in the lumen of appropriate size.</p

    A v√©rnyom√°s hat√°sa a veseart√©ria √°raml√°stani jellemzŇĎire eg√©szs√©ges √©s f√©l vese eset√©n = Effect of blood pressure on the flow characteristics of the renal artery in the case of healthy and single kidney condition

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    A v√©rnyom√°s v√°ltoz√°sa befoly√°solhatja az √°raml√°stani jellemzŇĎket, √©s ez√°ltal a ves√©k hemodinamik√°j√°t is. F√©l ves√©s √°llapotban ez a hat√°s m√©g jelentŇĎsebb lehet. A veseart√©ria k√∂rnyezet√©nek in vivo m√©rhetetlen √°raml√°stani jellemzŇĎit numerikus √°raml√°stani szimul√°ci√≥val hat√©konyan lehet vizsg√°lni. A kutat√°s elsŇĎdleges c√©lja annak bizony√≠t√°sa volt, hogy a magas v√©rnyom√°s √©s az izol√°lt szisztol√©s hypertonia v√°ltoz√°sokat eredm√©nyez a veseart√©ria √°raml√°stani jellemzŇĎiben, amelyek f√©l ves√©s esetben jelentŇĎsebbek. M√≥dszer: Egy v√©letlenszerŇĪen kiv√°lasztott betegcsoport aorta-veseart√©ria jobb √©s bal oldali el√°gaz√°si sz√∂geit m√©rt√ľk retrospekt√≠v m√≥don, in vivo. A veseart√©ria √°raml√°stani jellemzŇĎinek m√©r√©s√©re egy numerikus √°raml√°stani szimul√°ci√≥sorozatot v√©gezt√ľnk eg√©szs√©ges √©s f√©l ves√©s modelleken. A v√©rnyom√°st elŇĎsz√∂r fokozatosan n√∂velt√ľk 120/80 Hgmm √©rt√©krŇĎl 200/90 Hgmm √©rt√©kig. Ezt k√∂vetŇĎen az izol√°lt szisztol√©s hypertonia eset√©t szimul√°ltuk a diasztol√©s v√©rnyom√°st fokozatosan cs√∂kkentve 200/50 Hgmm √©rt√©kig. A szimul√°ci√≥ kimenŇĎ param√©terei a nyom√°s, turbulens kinetikus energia, sebess√©g √©s t√©rfogat√°ram √©rt√©kei voltak a veseart√©ri√°k kil√©pŇĎ keresztmetszet√©n. Eredm√©ny: A veseart√©ria-el√°gaz√°si sz√∂gek √°tlaga a bal oldalon 78¬į, a jobb oldalon 66¬į volt. A szimul√°ci√≥ eredm√©nyei azt mutatt√°k, hogy a magas v√©rnyom√°s √©s az izol√°lt szisztol√©s hypertonia k√∂vetkezetesen v√°ltoztatj√°k a veseart√©ria √°raml√°stani jellemzŇĎit, f√©l ves√©s esetben nagyobb m√©rt√©kben. Konkl√ļzi√≥k: A ves√©t k√°ros√≠thatja a nagyobb nyom√°s, a turbulencian√∂veked√©s atherosclerosishoz vezethet a veseart√©ria el√°gaz√°s√°n√°l. Ezek a jellemzŇĎk nagyobb m√©rt√©kben v√°ltoznak f√©l ves√©s √°llapotban, √≠gy ez vesz√©lyesebb a ves√©re n√©zve. Az √°raml√°si sebess√©g √©s t√©rfogat√°ram √©rt√©kei azonban nem f√ľggenek szignifik√°nsan a f√©l ves√©s √°llapott√≥l. = Summary ‚Äď Changes in blood pressure may affect flow characteristics and thus the haemodynamics of the kidneys as well. This effect may be more explicit in the single kidney state. The in vivo unmeasurable flow characteristics can be effectively estimated by numerical flow simulation. The primary aim of this study was to demonstrate that hypertension and isolated systolic hypertension result in changes of the flow characteristics of the renal artery that are more pronounced in the single kidney condition. Methods: Right and left renal artery branching angles were measured retrospectively in vivo in a randomly selected group of patients. A series of numerical flow simulations were performed, healthy and single kidney models to measure the flow characteristics of the renal artery. Blood pressure was first gradually increased from 120/80 mmHg to 200/90 mmHg. Subsequently, the case of isolated systolic hypertension was simulated by gradually decreasing diastolic blood pressure to 200/50 mmHg. The output parameters of the simulation were the pressure, turbulent kinetic energy, velocity and volumetric flow at the outlets of the renal arteries. Results: The average of the renal artery branching angles was 78¬į on the left side and 66¬į on the right side. The simulation results showed that hypertension and isolated systolic hypertension consistently alter renal artery flow characteristics to a greater extent in the case of single kidney. Conclusions: The kidney can be damaged by higher pressures, and an increase in turbulence may lead to atherosclerosis in the renal artery branching. These characteristics are higher in the single kidney state; thus, it is more dangerous for the kidney. Flow velocity and volumetric flow are not significantly dependent on the single kidney state

    Blood flow does not affect <i>she</i> expression or <i>she</i> mutant phenotype.

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    (A,B) In situ hybridization analysis for she expression at 28 hpf in tnnt2 MO-injected embryos and uninjected controls. Trunk region is shown, anterior is to the left. Numbers in the lower right indicate embryos that showed normal expression pattern out of the total number of embryos in 3 replicate experiments. (C-H) DA size analysis at 28 hpf in wt (she+/+) and she-/- sibling embryos, injected with tnnt2 MO, compared to uninjected controls. Embryos were obtained from cross of she+/- parents in kdrl:GFP background and subsequently genotyped. Note that DA diameter is greatly reduced in tnnt2 MO-injected embryos compared to wild-type uninjected embryos, and increased in she mutants, injected with tnnt2 MO compared to wild-type embryos injected with tnnt2 MO. Data are combined from 3 replicate experiments, shown in different color. Mean¬ĪSD is shown. The number of embryos analyzed is shown at the bottom of each bar. The same wt+tnnt2 MO embryos were used for comparisons in (G) and (H). *p (TIF)</p

    Fandom, society and politics in Germany, Austria and Switzerland

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    This chapter discusses the past and present of fan cultures in three neighbouring countries, whose football traditions have always been strongly interconnected, but nevertheless differed considerably: Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Four times World Cup winner Germany until the post-war era resisted official professionalism and only in the early 1960s established a nation-wide elite league championship that already in the 1970s became one of Europe‚Äôs leading houses. Nevertheless, football games in Germany have attracted huge numbers of spectators since the early 1920s. Austria in the interwar period was one of the pioneers of professionalism in Continental Europe, however, restricted to the capital city of Vienna. In the post-war period, the country‚Äôs football culture underwent a process of ‚Äėaustrification‚Äô with elite football expanding to areas outside Vienna and witnessed a decline of the national team‚Äôs strength. Multilingual Switzerland in the late nineteenth century used to be a bridgehead for the diffusion of football in Continental Europe, but football‚Äôs take-off to a mass spectator event in the interwar period was rather modest

    Viscosity, surface tension, and density of binary mixtures of the liquid organic hydrogen carrier diphenylmethane with benzophenone

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    The liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) diphenylmethane may react to benzophenone in the presence of air, especially at elevated temperatures. Therefore, information about the influence of benzophenone added to diphenylmethane on process-relevant thermophysical properties is required. In the present contribution, the liquid viscosity, surface tension, and liquid density of binary mixtures of diphenylmethane with benzophenone are determined between (283 and 573) K using complementary experimental methods. Investigations on the surface tension by the pendant-drop method and surface light scattering indicate molecular orientation effects of benzophenone at the vapor-liquid interface. With increasing benzophenone content, an increase in density, surface tension, and especially viscosity is found. For the latter property, a distinct change in the temperature dependence is observed at the transition from the liquid to the supercooled liquid state. Furthermore, water dissolved in benzophenone causes changes within 15% and 3% relative to the viscosity and surface tension of benzophenone, respectively
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