72 research outputs found

    The Relationship of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder : A Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization and Population-Based Sibling Comparison Study

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    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated, but it is unclear if this is a causal relationship or confounding. We used genetic analyses and sibling comparisons to clarify the direction of this relationship. Methods: Linkage disequilibrium score regression and 2-sample Mendelian randomization were used to test for genetic correlation (rg) and bidirectional causal effects using European ancestry genome-wide association studies of ADHD (20,183 cases and 35,191 controls) and 6 PTSD definitions (up to 320,369 individuals). Several additional variables were included in the analysis to verify the independence of the ADHD-PTSD relationship. In a population-based sibling comparison (N = 2,082,118 individuals), Cox regression models were fitted to account for time at risk, a range of sociodemographic factors, and unmeasured familial confounders (via sibling comparisons). Results: ADHD and PTSD had consistent rg (rg range, 0.43‚Äď0.52; p ‚ąí5). This result was not affected by heterogeneity, horizontal pleiotropy (Mendelian randomization Egger intercept = 4.34 √ó 10‚ąí4, p = .961), or other phenotypes and was consistent across PTSD datasets. However, we found no consistent associations between PTSD genetic liability and ADHD risk. Individuals diagnosed with ADHD were at a higher risk for developing PTSD than their undiagnosed sibling (hazard ratio = 2.37; 95% CI, 1.98‚Äď3.53). Conclusions: Our findings add novel evidence supporting the need for early and effective treatment of ADHD, as patients with this diagnosis are at significantly higher risk to develop PTSD later in life.</p

    Use of Serial Smartphone-Based Assessments to Characterize Diverse Neuropsychiatric Symptom Trajectories in a Large Trauma Survivor Cohort

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    The authors sought to characterize adverse posttraumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) symptom trajectories across ten symptom domains (pain, depression, sleep, nightmares, avoidance, re-experiencing, anxiety, hyperarousal, somatic, and mental/fatigue symptoms) in a large, diverse, understudied sample of motor vehicle collision (MVC) survivors. More than two thousand MVC survivors were enrolled in the emergency department (ED) and completed a rotating battery of brief smartphone-based surveys over a 2-month period. Measurement models developed from survey item responses were used in latent growth curve/mixture modeling to characterize homogeneous symptom trajectories. Associations between individual trajectories and pre-trauma and peritraumatic characteristics and traditional outcomes were compared, along with associations within and between trajectories. APNS across all ten symptom domains were common in the first two months after trauma. Many risk factors and associations with high symptom burden trajectories were shared across domains. Both across and within traditional diagnostic boundaries, APNS trajectory intercepts, and slopes were substantially correlated. Across all domains, symptom severity in the immediate aftermath of trauma (trajectory intercepts) had the greatest influence on the outcome. An interactive data visualization tool was developed to allow readers to explore relationships of interest between individual characteristics, symptom trajectories, and traditional outcomes ( http://itr.med.unc.edu/aurora/parcoord/ ). Individuals presenting to the ED after MVC commonly experience a broad constellation of adverse posttraumatic symptoms. Many risk factors for diverse APNS are shared. Individuals diagnosed with a single traditional outcome should be screened for others. The utility of multidimensional categorizations that characterize individuals across traditional diagnostic domains should be explored

    Gone too soon: priorities for action to prevent premature mortality associated with mental illness and mental distress

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    Globally, too many people die prematurely from suicide and the physical comorbidities associated with mental illness and mental distress. The purpose of this Review is to mobilise the translation of evidence into prioritised actions that reduce this inequity. The mental health research charity, MQ Mental Health Research, convened an international panel that used roadmapping methods and review evidence to identify key factors, mechanisms, and solutions for premature mortality across the social‚Äďecological system. We identified 12 key overarching risk factors and mechanisms, with more commonalities than differences across the suicide and physical comorbidities domains. We also identified 18 actionable solutions across three organising principles: the integration of mental and physical health care; the prioritisation of prevention while strengthening treatment; and the optimisation of intervention synergies across social‚Äďecological levels and the intervention cycle. These solutions included accessible, integrated high-quality primary care; early life, workplace, and community-based interventions co-designed by the people they should serve; decriminalisation of suicide and restriction of access to lethal means; stigma reduction; reduction of income, gender, and racial inequality; and increased investment. The time to act is now, to rebuild health-care systems, leverage changes in funding landscapes, and address the effects of stigma, discrimination, marginalisation, gender violence, and victimisation

    GWAS Meta-Analysis of Suicide Attempt: Identification of 12 Genome-Wide Significant Loci and Implication of Genetic Risks for Specific Health Factors

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    Extracellular Vesicles from Steatotic Hepatocytes Provoke Pro-Fibrotic Responses in Cultured Stellate Cells

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    Hepatic steatosis and chronic hepatocyte damage ultimately lead to liver fibrosis. Key pathophysiological steps are the activation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells. We assessed the interplay between hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells under normal and steatotic conditions. We hypothesized that hepatocyte-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) modify the phenotype of stellate cells. By high speed centrifugation, EVs were isolated from conditioned media of the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 under baseline conditions (C-EVs) or after induction of steatosis by linoleic and oleic acids for 24 h (FA-EVs). Migration of the human stellate cell line TWNT4 and of primary human stellate cells towards the respective EVs and sera of MAFLD patients were investigated using Boyden chambers. Phenotype alterations after incubation with EVs were determined by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. HepG2 cells released more EVs after treatment with fatty acids. Chemotactic migration of TWNT4 and primary hepatic stellate cells was increased, specifically towards FA-EVs. Prolonged incubation of TWNT4 cells with FA-EVs induced expression of proliferation markers and a myofibroblast-like phenotype. Though the expression of the collagen type 1 alpha 1 gene did not change after FA-EV treatment, expression of the myofibroblast markers, e.g., alpha-smooth-muscle-cell actin and TIMP1, was significantly increased. We conclude that EVs from steatotic hepatocytes can influence the behavior, phenotypes and expression levels of remodeling markers of stellate cells and guides their directed migration. These findings imply EVs as operational, intercellular communicators in the pathophysiology of steatosis-associated liver fibrosis and might represent a novel diagnostic parameter and therapeutic target

    Translational opportunities of single-cell biology in atherosclerosis

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    The advent of single-cell biology opens a new chapter for understanding human biological processes and for diagnosing, monitoring, and treating disease. This revolution now reaches the field of cardiovascular disease (CVD). New technologies to interrogate CVD samples at single-cell resolution are allowing the identification of novel cell communities that are important in shaping disease development and direct towards new therapeutic strategies. These approaches have begun to revolutionize atherosclerosis pathology and redraw our understanding of disease development. This review discusses the state-of-the-art of single-cell analysis of atherosclerotic plaques, with a particular focus on human lesions, and presents the current resolution of cellular subpopulations and their heterogeneity and plasticity in relation to clinically relevant features. Opportunities and pitfalls of current technologies as well as the clinical impact of single-cell technologies in CVD patient care are highlighted, advocating for multidisciplinary and international collaborative efforts to join the cellular dots of CVD

    JAM-A is a multifaceted regulator in hepatic fibrogenesis, supporting LSEC integrity and stellate cell quiescence

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    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Leukocyte infiltration is a hallmark of hepatic inflammation. The Junctional Adhesion Molecule A (JAM-A) is a crucial regulator of leukocyte extravasation and is upregulated in human viral fibrosis. Reduced shear stress within hepatic sinusoids and the specific phenotype of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) cumulate in differing adhesion characteristics during liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to define the functional role of cell-specific adhesion molecule JAM-A during hepatic fibrogenesis. METHODS: Complete, conditional (intestinal epithelial; endothelial) and bone marrow chimeric Jam-a knockout animals and corresponding C57Bl/6 wild-type animals were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 , 6 weeks). For functional analyses of JAM-A, comprehensive in vivo studies, co-culture models and flow-based adhesion assays were performed. RESULTS: Complete and bone marrow-derived Jam-a-/- animals showed aggravated fibrosis with increased non-sinusoidal, perivascular accumulation of CD11b+ F4/80+ monocyte-derived macrophages in contrast to wild-type mice. Despite being associated with disturbed epithelial barrier function, an intestinal epithelial Jam-a knockout did not affect fibrogenesis. In endothelial-specific Jam-a-/- animals, liver fibrosis was aggravated alongside sinusoid capillarization and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. HSC activation is induced via Jam-a-/- LSEC-derived secretion of soluble factors. Sinusoid CD31 expression and hedgehog gene signalling were increased, but leukocyte infiltration and adhesion to LSECs remained unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: Our models decipher cell-specific JAM-A to exert crucial functions during hepatic fibrogenesis. JAM-A on bone marrow-derived cells regulates non-sinusoidal vascular immune cell recruitment, while endothelial JAM-A controls liver sinusoid capillarization and HSC quiescence

    Enhancing Discovery of Genetic Variants for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Through Integration of Quantitative Phenotypes and Trauma Exposure Information

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    Funding Information: This work was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health / U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (Grant No. R01MH106595 [to CMN, IL, MBS, KJRe, and KCK], National Institutes of Health (Grant No. 5U01MH109539 to the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium ), and Brain & Behavior Research Foundation (Young Investigator Grant [to KWC]). Genotyping of samples was provided in part through the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Genetics at the Broad Institute supported by Cohen Veterans Bioscience . Statistical analyses were carried out on the LISA/Genetic Cluster Computer ( https://userinfo.surfsara.nl/systems/lisa ) hosted by SURFsara. This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank resource (Application No. 41209). This work would have not been possible without the financial support provided by Cohen Veterans Bioscience, the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Genetics at the Broad Institute, and One Mind. Funding Information: MBS has in the past 3 years received consulting income from Actelion, Acadia Pharmaceuticals, Aptinyx, Bionomics, BioXcel Therapeutics, Clexio, EmpowerPharm, GW Pharmaceuticals, Janssen, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, and Roche/Genentech and has stock options in Oxeia Biopharmaceuticals and Epivario. In the past 3 years, NPD has held a part-time paid position at Cohen Veterans Bioscience, has been a consultant for Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, and is on the scientific advisory board for Sentio Solutions for unrelated work. In the past 3 years, KJRe has been a consultant for Datastat, Inc., RallyPoint Networks, Inc., Sage Pharmaceuticals, and Takeda. JLM-K has received funding and a speaking fee from COMPASS Pathways. MU has been a consultant for System Analytic. HRK is a member of the Dicerna scientific advisory board and a member of the American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology Alcohol Clinical Trials Initiative, which during the past 3 years was supported by Alkermes, Amygdala Neurosciences, Arbor Pharmaceuticals, Dicerna, Ethypharm, Indivior, Lundbeck, Mitsubishi, and Otsuka. HRK and JG are named as inventors on Patent Cooperative Treaty patent application number 15/878,640, entitled ‚ÄúGenotype-guided dosing of opioid agonists,‚ÄĚ filed January 24, 2018. RP and JG are paid for their editorial work on the journal Complex Psychiatry. OAA is a consultant to HealthLytix. All other authors report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest. Funding Information: This work was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health/ U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (Grant No. R01MH106595 [to CMN, IL, MBS, KJRe, and KCK], National Institutes of Health (Grant No. 5U01MH109539 to the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium), and Brain & Behavior Research Foundation (Young Investigator Grant [to KWC]). Genotyping of samples was provided in part through the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Genetics at the Broad Institute supported by Cohen Veterans Bioscience. Statistical analyses were carried out on the LISA/Genetic Cluster Computer (https://userinfo.surfsara.nl/systems/lisa) hosted by SURFsara. This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank resource (Application No. 41209). This work would have not been possible without the financial support provided by Cohen Veterans Bioscience, the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Genetics at the Broad Institute, and One Mind. This material has been reviewed by the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. There is no objection to its presentation and/or publication. The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting true views of the U.S. Department of the Army or the Department of Defense. We thank the investigators who comprise the PGC-PTSD working group and especially the more than 206,000 research participants worldwide who shared their life experiences and biological samples with PGC-PTSD investigators. We thank Mark Zervas for his critical input. Full acknowledgments are in Supplement 1. MBS has in the past 3 years received consulting income from Actelion, Acadia Pharmaceuticals, Aptinyx, Bionomics, BioXcel Therapeutics, Clexio, EmpowerPharm, GW Pharmaceuticals, Janssen, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, and Roche/Genentech and has stock options in Oxeia Biopharmaceuticals and Epivario. In the past 3 years, NPD has held a part-time paid position at Cohen Veterans Bioscience, has been a consultant for Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, and is on the scientific advisory board for Sentio Solutions for unrelated work. In the past 3 years, KJRe has been a consultant for Datastat, Inc. RallyPoint Networks, Inc. Sage Pharmaceuticals, and Takeda. JLM-K has received funding and a speaking fee from COMPASS Pathways. MU has been a consultant for System Analytic. HRK is a member of the Dicerna scientific advisory board and a member of the American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology Alcohol Clinical Trials Initiative, which during the past 3 years was supported by Alkermes, Amygdala Neurosciences, Arbor Pharmaceuticals, Dicerna, Ethypharm, Indivior, Lundbeck, Mitsubishi, and Otsuka. HRK and JG are named as inventors on Patent Cooperative Treaty patent application number 15/878,640, entitled ?Genotype-guided dosing of opioid agonists,? filed January 24, 2018. RP and JG are paid for their editorial work on the journal Complex Psychiatry. OAA is a consultant to HealthLytix. All other authors report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest. Publisher Copyright: ¬© 2021 Society of Biological PsychiatryBackground: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is heritable and a potential consequence of exposure to traumatic stress. Evidence suggests that a quantitative approach to PTSD phenotype measurement and incorporation of lifetime trauma exposure (LTE) information could enhance the discovery power of PTSD genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Methods: A GWAS on PTSD symptoms was performed in 51 cohorts followed by a fixed-effects meta-analysis (N = 182,199 European ancestry participants). A GWAS of LTE burden was performed in the UK Biobank cohort (N = 132,988). Genetic correlations were evaluated with linkage disequilibrium score regression. Multivariate analysis was performed using Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS. Functional mapping and annotation of leading loci was performed with FUMA. Replication was evaluated using the Million Veteran Program GWAS of PTSD total symptoms. Results: GWASs of PTSD symptoms and LTE burden identified 5 and 6 independent genome-wide significant loci, respectively. There was a 72% genetic correlation between PTSD and LTE. PTSD and LTE showed largely similar patterns of genetic correlation with other traits, albeit with some distinctions. Adjusting PTSD for LTE reduced PTSD heritability by 31%. Multivariate analysis of PTSD and LTE increased the effective sample size of the PTSD GWAS by 20% and identified 4 additional loci. Four of these 9 PTSD loci were independently replicated in the Million Veteran Program. Conclusions: Through using a quantitative trait measure of PTSD, we identified novel risk loci not previously identified using prior case-control analyses. PTSD and LTE have a high genetic overlap that can be leveraged to increase discovery power through multivariate methods.publishersversionpublishe
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