150 research outputs found

    Molecular analysis of cyclic α-maltosyl-(1→6)-maltose binding protein in the bacterial metabolic pathway

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    Cyclic α-maltosyl-(1→6)-maltose (CMM) is a cyclic glucotetrasaccharide with alternating α-1,4 and α-1,6 linkages. Here, we report functional and structural analyses on CMM-binding protein (CMMBP), which is a substrate-binding protein (SBP) of an ABC importer system of the bacteria Arthrobacter globiformis. Isothermal titration calorimetry analysis revealed that CMMBP specifically bound to CMM with a Kd value of 9.6 nM. The crystal structure of CMMBP was determined at a resolution of 1.47 Å, and a panose molecule was bound in a cleft between two domains. To delineate its structural features, the crystal structure of CMMBP was compared with other SBPs specific for carbohydrates, such as cyclic α-nigerosyl-(1→6)-nigerose and cyclodextrins. These results indicate that A. globiformis has a unique metabolic pathway specialized for CMM

    Crystal structure of polysaccharide lyase family 20 endo-β-1,4-glucuronan lyase from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei

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    AbstractThe crystal structure of endo-β-(1→4)-glucuronan lyase from Trichoderma reesei (TrGL) has been determined at 1.8Å resolution as the first three-dimensional structure of polysaccharide lyase (PL) family 20. TrGL has a typical β-jelly roll fold, which is similar to glycoside hydrolase family 16 and PL7 enzymes. A calcium ion is bound to the site far from the cleft and appears to contribute to the stability. There are several completely conserved residues in the cleft. Possible catalytic residues are predicted based on structural comparison with PL7 alginate lyase A1–II′

    Comparison of glycoside hydrolase family 3 β-xylosidases from basidiomycetes and ascomycetes reveals evolutionarily distinct xylan degradation systems

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    Xylan is the most common hemicellulose in plant cell walls, though the structure of xylan polymers differs between plant species. Here, to gain a better understanding of fungal xylan degradation systems, which can enhance enzymatic saccharification of plant cell walls in industrial processes, we conducted a comparative study of two glycoside hydrolase family 3 (GH3) β-xylosidases (Bxls), one from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium (PcBxl3), and the other from the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (TrXyl3A). A comparison of the crystal structures of the two enzymes, both with saccharide bound at the catalytic center, provided insight into the basis of substrate binding at each subsite. PcBxl3 has a substrate-binding pocket at subsite -1, while TrXyl3A has an extra loop that contains additional binding subsites. Furthermore, kinetic experiments revealed that PcBxl3 degraded xylooligosaccharides faster than TrXyl3A, while the KM values of TrXyl3A were lower than those of PcBxl3. The relationship between substrate specificity and degree of polymerization of substrates suggested that PcBxl3 preferentially degrades xylobiose (X2), while TrXyl3A degrades longer xylooligosaccharides. Moreover, docking simulation supported the existence of extended positive subsites of TrXyl3A in the extra loop located at the N-terminus of the protein. Finally, phylogenetic analysis suggests that wood-decaying basidiomycetes use Bxls such as PcBxl3 that act efficiently on xylan structures from woody plants, whereas molds use instead Bxls that efficiently degrade xylan from grass. Our results provide added insights into fungal efficient xylan degradation systems

    The Putative Endoglucanase PcGH61D from Phanerochaete chrysosporium Is a Metal-Dependent Oxidative Enzyme that Cleaves Cellulose

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    Many fungi growing on plant biomass produce proteins currently classified as glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61), some of which are known to act synergistically with cellulases. In this study we show that PcGH61D, the gene product of an open reading frame in the genome of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, is an enzyme that cleaves cellulose using a metal-dependent oxidative mechanism that leads to generation of aldonic acids. The activity of this enzyme and its beneficial effect on the efficiency of classical cellulases are stimulated by the presence of electron donors. Experiments with reduced cellulose confirmed the oxidative nature of the reaction catalyzed by PcGH61D and indicated that the enzyme may be capable of penetrating into the substrate. Considering the abundance of GH61-encoding genes in fungi and genes encoding their functional bacterial homologues currently classified as carbohydrate binding modules family 33 (CBM33), this enzyme activity is likely to turn out as a major determinant of microbial biomass-degrading efficiency

    Traffic Jams Reduce Hydrolytic Efficiency of Cellulase on Cellulose Surface

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    Abstract A deeper mechanistic understanding of the saccharification of cellulosic biomass could enhance the efficiency of biofuels development. We report here the real-time visualization of crystalline cellulose degradation by individual cellulase enzymes using an advanced version of high-speed atomic force microscopy. Trichoderma reesei 2 cellobiohydrolase I (TrCel7A) molecules were observed to slide unidirectionally along the crystalline cellulose surface, but at one point exhibited collective halting analogous to a traffic jam. Changing the crystalline polymorphic form of cellulose by an ammonia treatment increased the apparent number of accessible lanes on the crystalline surface and consequently the number of moving cellulase molecules. Treatment of this bulky crystalline cellulose simultaneously or separately with T. reesei cellobiohydrolase II (TrCel6A) resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of mobile enzyme molecules on the surface. Cellulose was completely degraded by the synergistic action between the two enzymes

    Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize

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    BackgroundSoftwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known white-rot species, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were mainly isolated from hardwoods. Accordingly, it is anticipated that P. carnosa encodes a distinct set of enzymes and proteins that promote softwood decomposition. To elucidate the genetic basis of softwood bioconversion by a white-rot fungus, the present study reports the P. carnosa genome sequence and its comparative analysis with the previously reported P. chrysosporium genome.ResultsP. carnosa encodes a complete set of lignocellulose-active enzymes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that P. carnosa is enriched with genes encoding manganese peroxidase, and that the most divergent glycoside hydrolase families were predicted to encode hemicellulases and glycoprotein degrading enzymes. Most remarkably, P. carnosa possesses one of the largest P450 contingents (266 P450s) among the sequenced and annotated wood-rotting basidiomycetes, nearly double that of P. chrysosporium. Along with metabolic pathway modeling, comparative growth studies on model compounds and chemical analyses of decomposed wood components showed greater tolerance of P. carnosa to various substrates including coniferous heartwood.ConclusionsThe P. carnosa genome is enriched with genes that encode P450 monooxygenases that can participate in extractives degradation, and manganese peroxidases involved in lignin degradation. The significant expansion of P450s in P. carnosa, along with differences in carbohydrate- and lignin-degrading enzymes, could be correlated to the utilization of heartwood and sapwood preparations from both coniferous and hardwood species
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