161 research outputs found

    微小物体可視化センサLSIの設計

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    金沢大学大学院自然科学研究科情報システム金沢大学工学

    疑似的な不規則画素配置をもつ方向特異性のない撮像・表示素子構成の基礎検討 (論文小特集 画像の処理と符号化)

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    金沢大学大学院自然科学研究科情報システム金沢大学工学部Conventional image display devices and image acquisition devices consist of regularly located pixels. The pixels are located in a matrix for ease of implementation. Matrix placement of pixels intrinsically has directional singularity in the representation of images. The clarity of represented images is significantly dependent on the directions that objects in the image, such as lines, are facing. For example, horizontal lines are perfectly represented by matrix pixels, while the slanted lines have the jagged edges. We developed a pseudorandom pixel placement architecture that has no directional singularity in the representation of images, and we evaluated its characteristics and layout implementation

    Mechanisms involved in an increment of multimodal excitability of medullary and upper cervical dorsal horn neurons following cutaneous capsaicin treatment

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>In order to evaluate mechanisms that may underlie the sensitization of trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc; the medullary dorsal horn) and upper cervical spinal cord (C1-C2) nociceptive neurons to heat, cold and mechanical stimuli following topical capsaicin treatment of the facial skin, nocifensive behaviors as well as phosphorylation of extracellular regulated-kinase (pERK) in Vc and C1-C2 neurons were studied in rats.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Compared to vehicle application, capsaicin application to the lateral facial skin produced 1 hour later a flare in the skin, and also induced significantly greater nocifensive behaviors to heat, cold or mechanical stimulus of the lateral facial skin. The intrathecal (i.t.) injection of the MEK inhibitor PD98059 markedly attenuated the nocifensive behaviors to these stimuli in capsaicin-treated rats. Moreover, the number of pERK-like immunoreactive (pERK-LI) cells in Vc and C1-C2 was significantly larger following the heat, cold and mechanical stimuli in capsaicin-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated rats. The number of pERK-LI cells gradually increased following progressive increases in the heat or mechanical stimulus intensity and following progressive decrease in the cold stimulus. The ERK phosphorylation in Vc and C1-C2 neurons was strongly inhibited after subcutaneous injection of the capsaicin antagonist capsazepine in capsaicin-treated rats.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The present findings revealed that capsaicin treatment of the lateral facial skin causes an enhancement of ERK phosphorylation in Vc and C1-C2 neurons as well as induces nocifensive behavior to heat, cold and mechanical simulation of the capsaicin-treated skin. The findings suggest that TRPV1 receptor mechanisms in rat facial skin influence nociceptive responses to noxious cutaneous thermal and mechanical stimuli by inducing neuroplastic changes in Vc and C1-C2 neurons that involve in the MAP kinase cascade.</p

    Pulse number control of electrical resistance for multi-level storage based on phase change

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    金沢大学大学院医学系研究科量子医療技術学Phase change nonvolatile memory devices composed of SeSbTe chalcogenide semiconductor thin film were fabricated. The resistivity of the SeSbTe system was investigated to apply to multi-level data storage. The chalcogenide semiconductor acts as a programmable resistor that has a large dynamic range. The resistance of the chalcogenide semiconductor can be set to intermediate resistances between the amorphous and crystalline states using electric pulses of a specified power, and it can be controlled by repetition of the electric pulses. The size of the memory cell used in this work is 200 nm thick with a contact area of 1 µm diameter. The resistance of the chalcogenide semiconductor gradually varies from 41 kΩ to 840 Ω within octal steps. The resistance of the chalcogenide semiconductor decreases with increasing number of applied pulses. The step-down characteristic of the resistance can be explained as the crystalline region of the active phase change region increases with increasing number of applied pulses. The extent of crystallization was also estimated by the overall resistivity of the active region of the memory cell

    Nonvolatile SRAM based on Phase Change

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    金沢大学大学院自然科学研究科電子情報科学金沢大学工学

    Alteration of primary afferent activity following inferior alveolar nerve transection in rats

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>In order to evaluate the neural mechanisms underlying the abnormal facial pain that may develop following regeneration of the injured inferior alveolar nerve (IAN), the properties of the IAN innervated in the mental region were analyzed.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Fluorogold (FG) injection into the mental region 14 days after IAN transection showed massive labeling of trigeminal ganglion (TG). The escape threshold to mechanical stimulation of the mental skin was significantly lower (i.e. mechanical allodynia) at 11-14 days after IAN transection than before surgery. The background activity, mechanically evoked responses and afterdischarges of IAN Aδ-fibers were significantly higher in IAN-transected rats than naive. The small/medium diameter TG neurons showed an increase in both tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant (TTX-R) and -sensitive (TTX-S) sodium currents (<it>I</it><sub>Na</sub>) and decrease in total potassium current, transient current (<it>I</it><sub>A</sub>) and sustained current (<it>I</it><sub>K</sub>) in IAN-transected rats. The amplitude, overshoot amplitude and number of action potentials evoked by the depolarizing pulses after 1 μM TTX administration in TG neurons were significantly higher, whereas the threshold current to elicit spikes was smaller in IAN-transected rats than naive. Resting membrane potential was significantly smaller in IAN-transected rats than that of naive.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>These data suggest that the increase in both TTX-S <it>I</it><sub>Na </sub>and TTX-R <it>I</it><sub>Na </sub>and the decrease in <it>I</it><sub>A </sub>and <it>I</it><sub>k </sub>in small/medium TG neurons in IAN-transected rats are involved in the activation of spike generation, resulting in hyperexcitability of Aδ-IAN fibers innervating the mental region after IAN transection.</p

    Activation of TRPV1 and TRPM8 Channels in the Larynx and Associated Laryngopharyngeal Regions Facilitates the Swallowing Reflex

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    The larynx and associated laryngopharyngeal regions are innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) and are highly reflexogenic. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have recently been detected in SLN innervated regions; however, their involvement in the swallowing reflex has not been fully elucidated. Here, we explore the contribution of two TRP channels, TRPV1 and TRPM8, located in SLN-innervated regions to the swallowing reflex. Immunohistochemistry identified TRPV1 and TRPM8 on cell bodies of SLN afferents located in the nodose-petrosal-jugular ganglionic complex. The majority of TRPV1 and TRPM8 immunoreactivity was located on unmyelinated neurons. Topical application of different concentrations of TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists modulated SLN activity. Application of the agonists evoked a significantly greater number of swallowing reflexes compared with the number evoked by distilled water. The intervalbetween the reflexes evoked by the agonists was shorter than that produced by distilled water. Prior topical application of respective TRPV1 or TRPM8 antagonists significantly reduced the number of agonist-evoked reflexes. The findings suggest that the activation of TRPV1 and TRPM8 channels present in the swallowing-related regions can facilitate the evoking of swallowing reflex. Targeting the TRP channels could be a potential therapeutic strategy for the management of dysphagia

    Long-term follow-up of endovascular coil embolization for cerebral aneurysms using three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography.

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    OBJECTIVES: As endovascular treatment becomes more prevalent, aneurysm recurrence from neck remnants, recanalization, incomplete obliteration and bleeding remain major concerns. In the current analysis, we attempted to identify factors related to disease progression and clinical outcome in patients treated with coil embolization. METHODS: This study included 58 patients who underwent endovascular coil embolization for treatment of intracranial aneurysm. The result of embolization was evaluated with three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF MRA) and classified as a complete occlusion, a residual neck (minor, central and marginal types), a residual dome (central and marginal types). Patients were followed up clinically and radiologically. Statistical analyses were performed to establish factors that influenced the occurrence of adverse events such as recurrence of aneurysm. RESULTS: Overall, the complete occlusion rate was 18.8%, the occurrence of a residual neck was 67.2%, and the residual dome rate was 14.1%. The mean clinical follow-up was 31.2 months. Recurrences were found in 18 aneurysms, and major recurrences were retreated with coiling or surgery. The post-treatment study revealed that the marginal-type aneurysm filling has a significant impact on outcome. Thus, perianeurysmal edema was correlated with recurrence of the aneurysm. CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional TOF MRA was a sensitive tool for visualizing residual filling of embolized aneurysm and is useful for long-term follow-up of patients

    The Role of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channels in the Transduction of Dental Pain

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    Dental pain is a common health problem that negatively impacts the activities of daily living. Dentine hypersensitivity and pulpitis-associated pain are among the most common types of dental pain. Patients with these conditions feel pain upon exposure of the affected tooth to various external stimuli. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying dental pain, especially the transduction of external stimuli to electrical signals in the nerve, remain unclear. Numerous ion channels and receptors localized in the dental primary afferent neurons (DPAs) and odontoblasts have been implicated in the transduction of dental pain, and functional expression of various polymodal transient receptor potential (TRP) channels has been detected in DPAs and odontoblasts. External stimuli-induced dentinal tubular fluid movement can activate TRP channels on DPAs and odontoblasts. The odontoblasts can in turn activate the DPAs by paracrine signaling through ATP and glutamate release. In pulpitis, inflammatory mediators may sensitize the DPAs. They could also induce post-translational modifications of TRP channels, increase trafficking of these channels to nerve terminals, and increase the sensitivity of these channels to stimuli. Additionally, in caries-induced pulpitis, bacterial products can directly activate TRP channels on DPAs. In this review, we provide an overview of the TRP channels expressed in the various tooth structures, and we discuss their involvement in the development of dental pain
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