23 research outputs found

    Synthesis and Characterization of Polycarbonate Copolymers Containing Benzoyl Groups on the Side Chain for Scratch Resistance

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    The purpose of this study was to enhance the scratch resistance of polycarbonate copolymer by using 3,3′-dibenzoyl-4,4′-dihydroxybiphenyl (DBHP) monomer, containing benzoyl moieties on the ortho positions. DBHP monomer was synthesized from 4,4′-dihydroxybiphenyl and benzoyl chloride, followed by the Friedel-Craft rearrangement reaction with AlCl3. The polymerizations were conducted following the low-temperature procedure, which is carried out in methylene chloride by using triphosgene, triethylamine, bisphenol-A, and DBHP. The chemical structures of the polycarbonate copolymers were confirmed by 1H-NMR. The thermal properties of copolymers were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, and also surface morphologies were assessed by atomic force microscopy. The scratch resistance of homopolymer film (100 μm) changed from 6B to 1B, and the contact angle of a sessile water drop onto the homopolymer film also increased

    Numerical analysis of gas crossover effects in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs)

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    The gas crossover phenomenon in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is an indicator of membrane degradation. The objective of this paper is to numerically investigate the effects of hydrogen and oxygen crossover through the membrane in PEFCs. A gas crossover model is newly developed and implemented in a comprehensive multi-dimensional, multi-phase PEFC model developed earlier. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of the crossover diffusion coefficients for hydrogen and oxygen as well as the membrane thickness. The simulation results demonstrate that the hydrogen crossover induces an additional oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and consequently causes an additional voltage drop, while the influence of oxygen crossover on PEFC performance is relatively insignificant because it leads to the hydrogen/oxygen chemical reaction at the anode side. Finally, using the time-dependent gas crossover data that are available in the literature (measured in days), we conduct gas crossover simulations to examine the effects of increased gas crossover due to membrane degradation on PEFC performance and successfully demonstrate decaying polarization curves with respect to time. This study clearly elucidates the detailed mechanisms of the hydrogen and oxygen crossover phenomena and their effect on PEFC performance and durability.Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) Membrane degradation Flooding Hydrogen crossover Oxygen crossover Pin-hole formation

    Branched Sulfonimide-Based Proton Exchange Polymer Membranes from Poly(Phenylenebenzopheneone)s for Fuel Cell Applications

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    Improved proton conductivity and high durability are now a high concern for proton exchange membranes (PEMs). Therefore, highly proton conductive PEMs have been synthesized from branched sulfonimide-based poly(phenylenebenzophenone) (SI-branched PPBP) with excellent thermal and chemical stability. The branched polyphenylene-based carbon-carbon backbones of the SI-branched PPBP membranes were attained from the 1,4-dichloro-2,5-diphenylenebenzophenone (PBP) monomer using 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene as a branching agent (0.1%) via the Ni-Zn catalyzed C-C coupling reaction. The as-synthesized SI-branched PPBP membranes showed 1.00~1.86 meq./g ion exchange capacity (IEC) with unique dimensional stability. The sulfonimide groups of the SI-branched PPBP membranes had improved proton conductivity (75.9–121.88 mS/cm) compared to Nafion 117 (84.74 mS/cm). Oxidation stability by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fenton’s test study confirmed the significant properties of the SI-branched PPBP membranes. Additionally, a very distinct microphase separation between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties was observed using atomic force microscopic (AFM) analysis. The properties of the synthesized SI-branched PPBP membranes demonstrate their viability as an alternative PEM material

    Sulfonyl Imide Acid-Functionalized Membranes via Ni (0) Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Coupling Polymerization for Fuel Cells

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    Polymer membranes, having improved conductivity with enhanced thermal and chemical stability, are desirable for proton exchange membranes fuel cell application. Hence, poly(benzophenone)s membranes (SI-PBP) containing super gas-phase acidic sulfonyl imide groups have been prepared from 2,5-dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP) monomer by C-C coupling polymerization using Ni (0) catalyst. The entirely aromatic C-C coupled polymer backbones of the SI-PBP membranes provide exceptional dimensional stability with rational ion exchange capacity (IEC) from 1.85 to 2.30 mS/cm. The as-synthesized SI-PBP membranes provide enhanced proton conductivity (107.07 mS/cm) compared to Nafion 211® (104.5 mS/cm). The notable thermal and chemical stability of the SI-PBP membranes have been assessed by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fenton’s test, respectively. The well distinct surface morphology of the SI-PBP membranes has been confirmed by the atomic force microscopy (AFM). These results of SI-PBP membranes comply with all the requirements for fuel cell applications

    Highly Conductive and Flexible Gel Polymer Electrolyte with Bis(Fluorosulfonyl)imide Lithium Salt via UV Curing for Li-Ion Batteries

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    A series of new self-standing gel polymer electrolytes (SGPEs) were fabricated by ultraviolet (UV) curing and investigated for application in flexible lithium-ion batteries. Compared with traditional gel polymer electrolytes (combine with solvents or plasticizers), these new SGPEs were prepared simply by curing different weight ratios of lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) with a methacrylic linear monomer, poly (ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA). Noticeably, there were no solvents or plasticizers combined with the final SGPEs. Owing to this, the SGPEs showed high flexibility and strong mechanical stability. Some paramount physicochemical and electrochemical characters were observed. The SGPEs demonstrated good thermal stability below 150 °C and an extremely low glass transition temperature (Tg) (around −75 °C). Moreover, plastic crystal behaviors were also identified in this study. Ultimately, the SGPEs demonstrated excellent ionic conductivity at room temperature, which proves that these new SGPEs could be widely applied as a prospective electrolyte in flexible lithium-ion batteries

    Sulfonyl Imide Acid-Functionalized Membranes via Ni (0) Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Coupling Polymerization for Fuel Cells

    No full text
    Polymer membranes, having improved conductivity with enhanced thermal and chemical stability, are desirable for proton exchange membranes fuel cell application. Hence, poly(benzophenone)s membranes (SI-PBP) containing super gas-phase acidic sulfonyl imide groups have been prepared from 2,5-dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP) monomer by C-C coupling polymerization using Ni (0) catalyst. The entirely aromatic C-C coupled polymer backbones of the SI-PBP membranes provide exceptional dimensional stability with rational ion exchange capacity (IEC) from 1.85 to 2.30 mS/cm. The as-synthesized SI-PBP membranes provide enhanced proton conductivity (107.07 mS/cm) compared to Nafion 211® (104.5 mS/cm). The notable thermal and chemical stability of the SI-PBP membranes have been assessed by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fenton’s test, respectively. The well distinct surface morphology of the SI-PBP membranes has been confirmed by the atomic force microscopy (AFM). These results of SI-PBP membranes comply with all the requirements for fuel cell applications

    Branched Sulfonimide-Based Proton Exchange Polymer Membranes from Poly(Phenylenebenzopheneone)s for Fuel Cell Applications

    No full text
    Improved proton conductivity and high durability are now a high concern for proton exchange membranes (PEMs). Therefore, highly proton conductive PEMs have been synthesized from branched sulfonimide-based poly(phenylenebenzophenone) (SI-branched PPBP) with excellent thermal and chemical stability. The branched polyphenylene-based carbon-carbon backbones of the SI-branched PPBP membranes were attained from the 1,4-dichloro-2,5-diphenylenebenzophenone (PBP) monomer using 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene as a branching agent (0.1%) via the Ni-Zn catalyzed C-C coupling reaction. The as-synthesized SI-branched PPBP membranes showed 1.00~1.86 meq./g ion exchange capacity (IEC) with unique dimensional stability. The sulfonimide groups of the SI-branched PPBP membranes had improved proton conductivity (75.9–121.88 mS/cm) compared to Nafion 117 (84.74 mS/cm). Oxidation stability by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fenton’s test study confirmed the significant properties of the SI-branched PPBP membranes. Additionally, a very distinct microphase separation between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties was observed using atomic force microscopic (AFM) analysis. The properties of the synthesized SI-branched PPBP membranes demonstrate their viability as an alternative PEM material

    Lithium Salt Catalyzed Ring-Opening Polymerized Solid-State Electrolyte with Comparable Ionic Conductivity and Better Interface Compatibility for Li-Ion Batteries

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    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have drawn extensive attention owing to increasing demands in applications from portable electronic devices to energy storage systems. In situ polymerization is considered one of the most promising approaches for enabling interfacial issues and improving compatibility between electrolytes and electrodes in batteries. Herein, we observed in situ thermally induced electrolytes based on an oxetane group with LiFSI as an initiator, and investigated structural characteristics, physicochemical properties, contacting interface, and electrochemical performances of as-prepared SPEs with a variety of technologies, such as FTIR, 1H-NMR, FE-SEM, EIS, LSV, and chronoamperometry. The as-prepared SPEs exhibited good thermal stability (stable up to 210 °C), lower activation energy, and high ionic conductivity (>0.1 mS/cm) at 30 °C. Specifically, SPE-2.5 displayed a comparable ionic conductivity (1.3 mS/cm at 80 °C), better interfacial compatibility, and a high Li-ion transference number. The SPE-2.5 electrolyte had comparable coulombic efficiency with a half-cell configuration at 0.1 C for 50 cycles. Obtained results could provide the possibility of high ionic conductivity and good compatibility through in situ polymerization for the development of Li-ion batteries

    Improving the Ionic Conductivity of PEGDMA-Based Polymer Electrolytes by Reducing the Interfacial Resistance for LIBs

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    Polymer electrolytes (PEs) based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) have gained increasing interest in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and are expected to solve the safety issue of commercial liquid electrolytes due to their excellent thermal and mechanical stability, suppression of lithium dendrites and shortened battery assembly process. However, challenges, such as high interfacial resistance between electrolyte and electrodes and poor ionic conductivity (σ) at room temperature (RT), still limit the use of PEO-based PEs. In this work, an in situ PEO-based polymer electrolyte consisting of polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) 1000, lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) and DMF is cured on a LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode to address the above-mentioned issues. As a result, optimized PE shows a promising σ and lithium-ion transference number (tLi+) of 6.13 × 10−4 S cm−1 and 0.63 at RT and excellent thermal stability up to 136 °C. Moreover, the LiFePO4//Li cell assembled by in situ PE exhibits superior discharge capacity (141 mAh g−1) at 0.1 C, favorable Coulombic efficiency (97.6%) after 100 cycles and promising rate performance. This work contributes to modifying PEO-based PE to force the interfacial contact between the electrolyte and the electrode and to improve LIBs’ performance
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