706 research outputs found

    The Impact of the Shared Property Tax System on the Localities\u27 Fiscal Capacity

    Get PDF
    Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG), South Korea, introduced the Shared Property Tax System in 2008 in order to mitigate fiscal disparities among twenty five autonomous districts located in its jurisdiction. The new program, introduced at the end of a long controversy, was influenced by St. Paul-Minneapolis (Twin Cities) Metropolitan Area Fiscal Disparities Program in Minnesota. I examine two questions in my capstone project: (1) whether the program has increased fiscal capacity 1 of each district over the last five years as policy makers expected, and (2) whether the program of the SMG has contributed to relieve fiscal disparities among localities. To examine the research questions, I utilized the Standard Financial Needs Satisfaction Index (SNFSI) 2 , based upon the amount of property tax collections of twenty five localities and the impact over ten years from FY2003 to FY2012, measuring the program five years before and after introduction of the program, in order to assess the outcomes of the program. The data were collected from the Budget Office, the Administration Bureau, and the Finance Bureau of SMG via its official website or personal contact with officials in charge. I used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) model. In the model, dependent variables are absolute values of the Z-scores of SFNSI and property tax revenue of each district in each year and explanatory variables are program, population, and total general fund. The results of my analysis indicate that the differences in amounts of property tax collections between twenty five localities have been reduced since the program was introduced in 2008. In addition, the index of financial capacity, SFNSI, was improved in poorer localities over the duration of the study. In respect to wealthier localities, net contributors to the pool sources, the SFNSIs have decreased by a minimal amount

    Identification of replicative senescence-associated genes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by an annealing control primer system

    Get PDF
    Cellular senescence is regulated by specific genes in many organisms. The identification and functional analysis of senescence-associated genes could provide valuable insights into the senescence process. Here, we employed a new and improved differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) method that involves annealing control primers (ACPs) to identify genes that are differentially expressed in human umbilical endothelial cells during replicative senescence. Using 120 ACPs, we identified 31 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) search revealed 29 known genes and two unknown genes. Expression levels of the 29 known genes were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-RCR and by Western blotting for eight of these genes. CD9 antigen, MHC class I chain-related sequence A (MICA) and cell division cycle 37 homolog (CDC37) were up-regulated, and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), dickkopf-1 (DKK1), and transcription factor 7-like 1 (TCF7L1) were down-regulated in old cells. Treatment with recombinant human MICA caused a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in senescence-associated beta-galactosidase staining. Further analysis of differentially expressed genes may provide insights into the molecular basis of replicative senescence and vascular diseases associated with cellular senescence

    [Bis(2-pyridylmeth­yl)amine]dichloridomercury(II)

    Get PDF
    The Hg atom in the title complex, [HgCl2(C12H13N3)], adopts a square-pyramidal geometry, being ligated by three N atoms of the tridentate bis­(2-pyridylmeth­yl)amine ligand and two Cl atoms, with one of the latter occupying the apical position. Disorder is noted in the amine portion of the ligand and this was modelled over two sites, with the major component having a site-occupancy factor of 0.794 (14)

    Mind Bomb 1-Expressing Intermediate Progenitors Generate Notch Signaling to Maintain Radial Glial Cells

    Get PDF
    SummaryNotch signaling is critical for the stemness of radial glial cells (RGCs) during embryonic neurogenesis. Although Notch-signal-receiving events in RGCs have been well characterized, the signal-sending mechanism by the adjacent cells is poorly understood. Here, we report that conditional inactivation of mind bomb-1 (mib1), an essential component for Notch ligand endocytosis, in mice using the nestin and hGFAP promoters resulted in complete loss of Notch activation, which leads to depletion of RGCs, and premature differentiation into intermediate progenitors (IPs) and finally neurons, which were reverted by the introduction of active Notch1. Interestingly, Mib1 expression is restricted in the migrating IPs and newborn neurons, but not in RGCs. Moreover, sorted Mib1+ IPs and neurons can send the Notch signal to neighboring cells. Our results reveal that not only newborn neurons but also IPs are essential Notch-ligand-presenting cells for maintaining RGC stemness during both symmetric and asymmetric divisions

    Characterization of fiber-optic light delivery and light-induced temperature changes in a rodent brain for precise optogenetic neuromodulation

    Get PDF
    Understanding light intensity and temperature increase is of considerable importance in designing or performing in vivo optogenetic experiments. Our study describes the optimal light power at target depth in the rodent brain that would maximize activation of light-gated ion channels while minimizing temperature increase. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of light delivery were used to provide a guideline for suitable light power at a target depth. In addition, MC simulations with the Pennes bio-heat model using data obtained from measurements with a temperature-measuring cannula having 12.3 mV/°C of thermoelectric sensitivity enabled us to predict tissue heating of 0.116 °C/mW on average at target depth of 563 μm and specifically, a maximum mean plateau temperature increase of 0.25 °C/mW at 100 μm depth for 473 nm light. Our study will help to improve the design and performance of optogenetic experiments while avoiding potential over-and underillumination. © 2016 Optical Society of America.1

    C-kit-negative Extragastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Originating in the Mesentery Misdiagnosed as an Ovarian Tumor before Surgery

    Get PDF
    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare digestive system malignancies with extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs) being even less. Diagnosing GISTs usually requires the identification of c-kit (CD117) expression by immunohistochemical staining. A 53-year-old woman complaining of dyspepsia was referred for the evaluation of a 1.5-cm extrinsic compression at the greater curvature of the proximal antrum. EUS revealed a multiseptated mass with positive Doppler findings. Abdominal CT showed that she harbored a large, 20-cm mass in her abdominal cavity, most likely arising from the right ovary. Surgery revealed a hypervascular tumor arising from the mesentery and attached to the gastric lesser curvature. Pathological examination revealed negativity for c-kit, but positivity for the protein “Discovered on GIST-1” (DOG1), confirming the EGIST diagnosis. Herein, we report this rare case of a c-kit-negative EGIST originating in the mesentery, which was diagnosed based on staining for DOG1

    Intramuscular fat formation in fetuses and the effect of increased protein intake during pregnancy in Hanwoo cattle

    Get PDF
    Understanding adipocyte development in fetus during bovine pregnancy is important for strengthening fattening technology. Additionally, nutritional level of dams during pregnancy has the potential to improve offspring growth and fat development. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the intramuscular adipocyte development and expression level of related genes in bovine fetus, and the effect of increased crude protein (CP) intake during pregnancy on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of male offspring. Eighty six pregnant Hanwoo cows (average body weight, 551.5 ± 51.3 kg, age 5.29 ± 0.61 y) were used. Fetuses were collected at 90, 180 and 270 d of gestation from 18 pregnant Hanwoo cows. The remaining 68 pregnant cows were randomly assigned to 2 feeding groups. The control (CON) group was provided the standard protein diet (n = 34), and treatment (TRT) group was provided a diet with a 5% increase in CP intake (n = 34). Male offspring were divided into two groups according to protein treatment of the pregnant cows: CON male offspring (CON-O) and TRT male offspring (TRT-O). Intramuscular adipocytes were found in the fetal skeletal muscle after 180 days of gestation. Male calf’s birth weight increased in the TRT group compared to that in the CON group (p < 0.002). The final body weight (p < 0.003) and average daily gain (p < 0.019) of male offspring were significantly higher in TRT-O than in CON-O. The feed conversion ratio was also improved by 10.5% in TRT-O compared to that in CON-O (p < 0.026). Carcass weight was significantly higher in the TRT-O group than that in the CON-O group (p < 0.003), and back fat was thicker in the TRT-O group (p = 0.07). The gross receipts and net income were higher in TRT-O than in CON-O (p < 0.04). Thus, fetal intramuscular fat can be formed from the mid-gestation period, and increased CP intake during pregnancy can increase net income by improving the growth and carcass weight of male offspring rather than intramuscular fat
    corecore