3,079 research outputs found

    Agency and Virtues

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    In the philosophy of action, agency manifests the capacity of the agent to act. An agent is one who acts voluntarily, consciously and intentionally. This article studies the relationship between virtues and agency to learn to what extent agency is conceptually and metaphysically dependent on moral or epistemic virtues; whether virtue is a necessary condition for action and agency, besides the belief, desire and intention? Or are virtues necessary merely for the moral or epistemic character of the agent and not his agency? If virtues are constructive elements of personal identity, can we say that virtues are necessary for action and agency? If we accept that virtues play a role in agency, the principle of “Ought Implies Can” makes us face a new challenge; which we will discuss. After explaining the concept of action and agency, I will study the relationship between agency and virtues in the field of ethics and epistemology. Ultimately, I conclude that not only in theories of virtue but also in other ethical theories, virtue is independently necessary for the actualization of agency; even if, conceptually, there might not be any relation between the two. In many cases, virtue can also have a crucial role in prudential agency. agency, action, moral virtue, epistemic virtue, the principle of “Ought Implies Can”. * Ph.D., Professor. Department of Islamic Philosophy and Theology, University of Qom, Qom, Iran. ׀ [email protected]

    An investigation into the validation of formalised cognitive dimensions

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    The cognitive dimensions framework is a conceptual framework aimed at characterising features of interactive systems that are strongly influential upon their effective use. As such the framework facilitates the critical assessment and design of a wide variety of information artifacts. Although the framework has proved to be of considerable interest to researchers and practitioners, there has been little research examining how easily the dimensions used by it can be consistently applied. The work reported in this paper addresses this problem by examining an approach to the systematic application of dimensions and assessing its success empirically. The findings demonstrate a relatively successful approach to validating the systematic application of some concepts found in the cognitive dimensions framework.</p

    Improved hormonal and oxidative changes by Royal Jelly in the rat model of PCOS: An experimental study

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    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine and complex metabolic disorder, associated with anovulation, changes in sex hormone, biochemical factors, and ovarian tissue. Royal Jelly (RJ) has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: To examine the therapeutic effect of RJ on PCOS-related hormonal and biochemical changes in a rat model of PCOS. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 42 female Wistar rats (weighing 180–200 gr, aged 10–12 wk) were divided into six groups (n = 7/each): control; PCOS; RJ 100 mg/kg; RJ 200 mg/kg; PCOS + RJ 100 mg/kg; and PCOS + RJ 200 mg/kg. After 21 days, the animals were weighed and dissected. The serums were used for nitric oxide (NO) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and estradiol and progesterone measurements. The ovaries were assessed for histological changes. Results: PCOS increased estradiol and NO levels, and decreased progesterone and FRAP levels. In PCOS + RJ groups, the progesterone (p = 0.01) and FRAP levels (p ≤ 0.001) increased and the estradiol and NO (p ≤ 0.001) levels decreased significantly. Moreover, the number of mature follicles (p = 0.01) and corpus luteum increased (p ≤ 0.001), and ovarian and uterus weight deceased significantly (p ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: RJ improved estradiol, progesterone, FRAP, and NO levels, and ovarian structure in the rat model of PCOS. Key words: Royal Jelly, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Ovary, Sex hormone

    Simulation for field emission images of micrometer-long SWCNTs

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    The electron distribution of open-ended single-walled carbon nanotubes with chirality indexes (7,0) and (5,5) in the field emission conditions was calculated via a multi-scaled algorithm. The field emission images were produced numerically. It was found that the emission patterns change with the applied macroscopic field. Especially, the symmetry of the emission pattern of the (7,0) carbon nanotube is breaking in the lower field but the breaking is less obvious in the higher field. The enlargement factor increases with the applied macroscopic field.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figure

    The Possibility of Moral Dilemmas Based on Arguments form Emotional Experience

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    Moral dilemmas are situations in which the agents are provided by two conflicting moral judgments but it's not possible for them to act upon both judgments at the same time. Proponents of moral dilemmas say that agents in conflicting situations, have to act in a way that it is morally wrong. Agents will experience negative feelings such as guilt, regret and remorse, no matter which alternative is chosen by them. Opponents, on the other hand, argue in contrary and say that these situations don't avoid incoherence in a moral theory. They claim that although a good moral theory should be action guiding in any situation, it shouldn’t provide the agent with two conflicting moral judgments. Moral dilemmas violate the principle of being action guiding in a moral theory. Proponents often argue in virtue ethics framework and believe that virtue ethic theory is coherent and action guiding and it provides an appropriate explanation for moral dilemmas. Keyword

    Improving Patients Experience in an Emergency Department using Systems Engineering Approach

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    Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)Healthcare industry in United States of America is facing a big paradox. Although US is a leader in the industry of medical devices, medical practices and medical researches, however there isnt enough satisfaction and quality in performance of US healthcare operations. Despite the big investments and budgets associated with US healthcare, there are big threats to US healthcare operational side, that reduces the quality of care. In this research study, a step by step Systems Engineering approach is applied to improve healthcare delivery process in an Emergency Department of a hospital located in Indianapolis, Indiana. In this study, different type of systems engineering tools and techniques are used to improve the quality of care and patients satisfaction in ED of Eskenazi hospital. Having a simulation model will help to have a better understanding of the ED process and learn more about the bottlenecks of the process. Simulation model is verified and validated using different techniques like applying extreme and moderate conditions and comparing model results with historical data. 4 different what if scenarios are proposed and tested to find out about possible LOS improvements. Additionally, those scenarios are tested in both regular and an increased patient arrival rate. The optimal selected what-if scenario can reduce the LOS by 37 minutes compared to current ED setting. Additionally, by increasing the patient arrival rate patients may stay in the ED up to 6 hours. However, with the proposed ED setting, patients will only spend an additional 106 minutes compared to the regular patient arrival rate