92 research outputs found

    T cells but not NK cells are associated with a favourable outcome for resected colorectal liver metastases

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    T cells, but not NK cells, are preferentially recruited to colorectal liver metastases. NK cells within colorectal metastases have an intrahepatic and potentially tolerogenic, rather than a peripheral, phenotype. Similar to primary tumours, the magnitude of the T cell infiltrate in colorectal metastases is positively associated with surviva

    Genetic variation in the interleukin-28B gene is associated with spontaneous clearance and progression of hepatitis C virus in Moroccan patients

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    Genetic variation in the IL28B gene has been strongly associated with treatment outcomes, spontaneous clearance and progression of the hepatitis C virus infection (HCV). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of polymorphisms at this locus with progression and outcome of HCV infection in a Moroccan population. We analyzed a cohort of 438 individuals among them 232 patients with persistent HCV infection, of whom 115 patients had mild chronic hepatitis and 117 had advanced liver disease (cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma), 68 individuals who had naturally cleared HCV and 138 healthy subjects. The IL28B SNPs rs12979860 and rs8099917 were genotyped using a TaqMan 5' allelic discrimination assay. The protective rs12979860-C and rs8099917-T alleles were more common in subjects with spontaneous clearance (77.9% vs 55.2%; p = 0.00001 and 95.6% vs 83.2%; p = 0.0025, respectively). Individuals with clearance were 4.69 (95% CI, 1.99-11.07) times more likely to have the C/C genotype for rs12979860 polymorphism (p = 0.0017) and 3.55 (95% CI, 0.19-66.89) times more likely to have the T/T genotype at rs8099917. Patients with advanced liver disease carried the rs12979860-T/T genotype more frequently than patients with mild chronic hepatitis C (OR = 1.89; 95% CI, 0.99-3.61; p = 0.0532) and this risk was even more pronounced when we compared them with healthy controls (OR = 4.27; 95% CI, 2.08-8.76; p = 0.0005). The rs8099917-G allele was also associated with advanced liver disease (OR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.40-3.93; p = 0.0100). In the Moroccan population, polymorphisms near the IL28B gene play a role both in spontaneous clearance and progression of HCV infection

    Spatial Clustering of Receptors and Signaling Molecules Regulates NK Cell Response to Peptide Repertoire Changes

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    Natural Killer (NK) cell activation requires integration of inhibitory and activating signaling. Inhibitory signals are determined by members of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) family, which have major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I ligands. Loss of this inhibitory signal leads to NK cell activation. Thus, down-regulation of MHC I during viral infection or cancer induces NK cell activation. However, NK cell activation in the presence of MHC-I has been demonstrated for HLA-C*0102 through changes in its peptide content: “peptide antagonism.” Here we identify an antagonist peptide for HLA-C*0304 suggesting that peptide antagonism is a generalizable phenomenon and, using a combination of mathematical modeling, confocal imaging, and immune-assays, we quantitatively determine mechanisms that underlie peptide antagonism in inhibitory KIR2DL2/3 signaling. These data provide a mechanism for NK cell activation based on a reduction of inhibitory signaling in the presence of preserved levels of MHC class I

    Human CD49a+ Lung Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity in Response to Influenza A Virus

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    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major global public health burden due to its routine evasion of immunization strategies. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate cytotoxic cells with important antiviral activity in the human body, yet the function of these cells in the control of IAV infection is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of lung NK cell cytotoxic responses to IAV. Human lung explants were infected ex vivo with IAV, and lung NK cell activation was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytotoxic responses of NK cell subsets against IAV-infected macrophages were measured by flow cytometry and ELISA. Despite reports of hypofunctionality in the pulmonary environment, human lung-associated NK cells responded rapidly to ex vivo IAV infection, with upregulation of surface CD107a 24 h post-infection. The lung NK cell phenotype is similar in maturity and differentiation to NK cells of the peripheral blood but a unique CD56brightCD49a+CD103+CD69+ NK cell population was identified in the lung, indicating NK cell residency within this organ. In response to ex vivo IAV infection a greater proportion of resident CD56brightCD49a+ NK cells expressed surface CD107a compared with CD56brightCD49a− NK cells, suggesting a hyperfunctional NK cell population may be present within human lung tissue and could be the result of innate immunological training. Furthermore, NK cells provided significant antiviral, cytotoxic activity following contact with influenza-infected cells, including the production and release of IFN-γ and granzyme-B resulting in macrophage cell death. These results suggest that a resident, trained NK cell population are present in the human lung and may provide early and important control of viral infection. A greater understanding of this resident mucosal population may provide further insight into the role of these cells in controlling viral infection and generating appropriate adaptive immunity to IAV

    UK-Wide Multicenter Evaluation of Second-line Therapies in Primary Biliary Cholangitis

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    Background &amp; aims: thirty-to-forty percent of patients with primary biliary cholangitis inadequately respond to ursodeoxycholic acid. Our aim was to assemble national, real-world data on the effectiveness of obeticholic acid (OCA) as a second-line treatment, alongside non-licensed therapy with fibric acid derivatives (bezafibrate or fenofibrate).Methods: this was a nationwide observational cohort study conducted from August 2017 until June 2021.Results: we accrued data from 457 patients; 349 treated with OCA and 108 with fibric acid derivatives. At baseline/pre-treatment, individuals in the OCA group manifest higher risk features compared with those taking fibric acid derivatives, evidenced by more elevated alkaline phosphatase values, and a larger proportion of individuals with cirrhosis, abnormal bilirubin, prior non-response to ursodeoxycholic acid, and elastography readings &gt;9.6kPa (P &lt; .05 for all). Overall, 259 patients (OCA) and 80 patients (fibric acid derivatives) completed 12 months of second-line therapy, yielding a dropout rate of 25.7% and 25.9%, respectively. At 12 months, the magnitude of alkaline phosphatase reduction was 29.5% and 56.7% in OCA and fibric acid groups (P &lt; .001). Conversely, 55.9% and 36.4% of patients normalized serum alanine transaminase and bilirubin in the OCA group (P &lt; .001). The proportion with normal alanine transaminase or bilirubin values in the fibric acid group was no different at 12 months compared with baseline. Twelve-month biochemical response rates were 70.6% with OCA and 80% under fibric acid treatment (P = .121). Response rates between treatment groups were no different on propensity-score matching or on sub-analysis of high-risk groups defined at baseline.Conclusion: across the population of patients with primary biliary cholangitis in the United Kingdom, rates of biochemical response and drug discontinuation appear similar under fibric acid and OCA treatment.</p

    The role of KIR in disease

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    Following the cloning of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like (KIR) genes in 1995 (Colonna M, Samaridis J. Science 268(5209):405–408, 1995) their population diversity has become increasingly apparent. This has spawned a plethora of disease association studies. As the KIR genes need to be considered in combination with their MHC class I ligands, this has added complexity to the analysis of these studies. KIR, and KIR:MHC class I gene combinations have been associated with viral infections, autoimmunity, transplantation and pregnancy-associated disorders. Simple rules, with which to interpret these datasets, are often difficult to find and, as our understanding of the interaction between KIR and MHC class I increases, the analysis of these datasets will become even more complex. This review attempts to summarize our current knowledge whilst indicating areas of potential further complexit

    A pocket reference to hepatitis C

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    KIR and disease: a model system or system of models?

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    The discovery of an unexpected level of diversity among the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors has led to a search for their role in human disease. Due to their polymorphism and also that of their human leukocyte antigen class I ligands, these studies are difficult to perform and complex to interpret. Nevertheless, as the number of data sets increase, consistent trends and themes are beginning to emerge in both viral and inflammatory disorders. In this review, we summarize the findings from a number of disease association studies and discuss these in the context of the activating and inhibitory roles of the members of this gene family

    Natural killer cells and hepatitis C: action and reaction

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    In 1989, hepatitis C virus (HCV) was first identified as the infectious agent responsible for human non-A, non-B hepatitis. Two decades later, HCV remains a global public health problem with a suboptimal response rate to treatment and the absence of a protective vaccine. Recent work has highlighted the influence of the innate immune system, and in particular natural killer cells, on the outcome and pathology of HCV infection. These cells are considerably more complex than was originally thought and their role in viral infections is currently being unravelled. This review summarises our emerging understanding of natural killer cells in HCV infection
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