187 research outputs found

    Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in the Treatment of Acute and Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease

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    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a cellular component of the supportive microenvironment (stroma) found in the bone marrow, umbilical cord, placenta, and adipose tissues. In addition to providing cellular and extracellular cues to support the proliferation and differentiation of cells that comprise functional tissues, MSC also contribute to tissue repair and have immunomodulatory properties. Their ability to modulate immunologic reactions while themselves not provoking immunologic responses from alloreactive T-lymphocytes and/or other effector cells, make MSC a potentially ideal therapeutic agent with which to treat graft versus host disease (GvHD) following hematopoietic transplantation. Despite in vitro experiments confirming that MSC suppress mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) and in vivo evidence from mouse models that show evidence that MSC can ameliorate GvHD, clinical trials to date using MSC to treat GvHD have shown mixed results. Whether this is a consequence of suboptimal timing and dose of administered MSC remains to be clarified. It is clear that immunomodulatory potential of MSC as a cellular therapy for GvHD remains to be realized in the clinic

    Cephalosporin Induced Neurotoxicity-A Rare Cause of Acute Encephalopathy

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    Individual motile CD4+ T cells can participate in efficient multikilling through conjugation to multiple tumor cells

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    T cells genetically modified to express a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) for the investigational treatment of B-cell malignancies comprise a heterogeneous population, and their ability to persist and participate in serial killing of tumor cells is a predictor of therapeutic success. We implemented Timelapse Imaging Microscopy in Nanowell Grids (TIMING) to provide direct evidence that CD4+CAR+ T cells (CAR4 cells) can engage in multikilling via simultaneous conjugation to multiple tumor cells. Comparisons of the CAR4 cells and CD8+CAR+ T cells (CAR8 cells) demonstrate that, although CAR4 cells can participate in killing and multikilling, they do so at slower rates, likely due to the lower granzyme B content. Significantly, in both sets of T cells, a minor subpopulation of individual T cells identified by their high motility demonstrated efficient killing of single tumor cells. A comparison of the multikiller and single-killer CAR+ T cells revealed that the propensity and kinetics of T-cell apoptosis were modulated by the number of functional conjugations. T cells underwent rapid apoptosis, and at higher frequencies, when conjugated to single tumor cells in isolation, and this effect was more pronounced on CAR8 cells. Our results suggest that the ability of CAR+ T cells to participate in multikilling should be evaluated in the context of their ability to resist activation-induced cell death. We anticipate that TIMING may be used to rapidly determine the potency of T-cell populations and may facilitate the design and manufacture of next-generation CAR+ T cells with improved efficacy. Cancer Immunol Res; 3(5); 473–82. ©2015 AACR

    Significance of Persistent Cytogenetic Abnormalities on Myeloablative Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in First Complete Remission

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    AbstractRisk stratification is important to identify patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who might benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in first complete remission. We retrospectively studied 150 patients with AML and diagnostic cytogenetic abnormalities who underwent myeloablative allo-HSCT while in first complete remission to evaluate the prognostic impact of persistent cytogenetic abnormalities at allo-HSCT. Three risk groups were identified. Patients with favorable/intermediate cytogenetics at diagnosis (n = 49) and patients with unfavorable cytogenetics at diagnosis but without a persistent abnormal clone at allo-HSCT (n = 83) had a similar 3-year leukemia-free survival of 58%-60% despite the higher 3-year relapse incidence (RI) in the latter group (32.3%, versus 16.8% in the former group). A third group of patients with unfavorable cytogenetics at diagnosis and a persistent abnormal clone at allo-HSCT (n = 15) had the worst prognosis, with a 3-year RI of 57.5% and 3-year leukemia-free survival of only 29.2%. These data suggest that patients with AML and unfavorable cytogenetics at diagnosis and a persistent abnormal clone at allo-HSCT are at high risk for relapse after allo-HSCT. These patients should be considered for clinical trials designed to optimize conditioning regimens and/or to use preemptive strategies in the posttransplantion setting aimed at decreasing RI

    Clofarabine ± Fludarabine with Once Daily i.v. Busulfan as Pretransplant Conditioning Therapy for Advanced Myeloid Leukemia and MDS

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    Although a combination of i.v. busulfan (Bu) and fludarabine (Flu) is a safe, reduced-toxicity conditioning program for acute myelogenous leukemia/myelodysplastic syndromes (AML/MDS), recurrent leukemia posttransplantation remains a problem. To enhance the conditioning regimen’s antileukemic effect, we decided to supplant Flu with clofarabine (Clo), and assayed the interactions of these nucleoside analogs alone and in combination with Bu in Bu-resistant human cell lines in vitro. We found pronounced synergy between each nucleoside and the alkylator but even more enhanced cytotoxic synergy when the nucleoside analogs were combined prior to exposing the cells to Bu. We then designed a 4-arm clinical trial in patients with myeloid leukemia undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Patients were adaptively randomized as follows: Arm I–Clo:Flu 10:30 mg/m2, Arm II—20:20 mg/m2, Arm III—30:10 mg/m2, and Arm IV–single-agent Clo at 40 mg/m2. The nucleoside analog(s) were/was infused over 1 hour once daily for 4 days, followed on each day by Bu, infused over 3 hours to a pharmacokinetically targeted daily area under the curve (AUC) of 6000 μMol-min ± 10%. Fifty-one patients have been enrolled with a minimum follow-up exceeding 100 days. There were 32 males and 19 females, with a median age of 45 years (range: 6-59). Nine patients had chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) (BC: 2, second AP: 3, and tyrosine-kinase inhibitor refractory first chronic phase [CP]: 4). Forty-two patients had AML: 14 were induction failures, 8 in first chemotherapy-refractory relapse, 7 in untreated relapse, 3 in second or subsequent relapse, 4 were in second complete remission (CR), and 3 in second CR without platelet recovery (CRp), 2 were in high-risk CR1. Finally, 1 patient was in first CRp. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was tacrolimus and mini-methorexate (MTX), and those who had an unrelated or 1 antigen-mismatched donor received low-dose rabbit-ATG (Thymoglobulin™). All patients engrafted. Forty-one patients had active leukemia at the time of transplant, and 35 achieved CR (85%). Twenty of the 42 AML patients and 5 of 9 CML patients are alive with a projected median overall survival (OS) of 23 months. Marrow and blood (T cell) chimerism studies at day +100 revealed that both in the lower-dose Clo groups (groups 1+2) and the higher-dose Clo groups (groups 3+4), the patients had a median of 100% donor (T cell)-derived DNA. There has been no secondary graft failure. In the first 100 days, 1 patient died of pneumonia, and 1 of liver GVHD. We conclude that (1) Clo ± Flu with i.v. Bu as pretransplant conditioning is safe in high-risk myeloid leukemia patients; (2) clofarabine is sufficiently immunosuppressive to support allo-SCT in myeloid leukemia; and (3) the median OS of 23 months in this high-risk patient population is encouraging. Additional studies to evaluate the antileukemic efficacy of Clo ± Flu with i.v. Bu as pretransplant conditioning therapy are warranted

    Deletion of the Short Arm of Chromosome 1 (del 1p) is a Strong Predictor of Poor Outcome in Myeloma Patients Undergoing an Autotransplant

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    AbstractSeveral chromosomal abnormalities detected by conventional cytogenetic analysis have an adverse impact on the outcome in myeloma patients. A wide spectrum of abnormalities involving chromosomes 1, 13, 14, and 17 has been described. We analyzed the outcome of 83 patients with clonal cytogenetic abnormalities, who underwent high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma at our institution. Clonal abnormalities were detected at diagnosis by conventional cytogenetic analysis in 83 patients. Patients underwent a single autologous transplant between April 2000 and May 2005. Preparative regimen was high-dose melphalan alone (73), or a combination of topotecan, melphalan, and cyclophosphamide (TMC = 10). The most commonly observed chromosomal abnormalities were deletion of chromosome 13 (32%), hyperdiploidy (21%), deletion of chromosome 1p (18%), and t (11; 14) in 7% patients. Median follow-up among surviving patients was 25.5 months. Median interval from diagnosis to autotransplant was 7.7 months (range: 2.5-52). Median progression-free survival (PFS) for the entire group was 19 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 52 months. On univariate analysis, both PFS and OS were significantly shorter in patients with deletion 1p (P = .001 and <.0001, respectively). Thirty-two patients whose cytogenetic abnormalities returned to normal prior to autotransplant had longer PFS and OS than patients with persistent abnormalities (P = .02 and .08, respectively). Deletion 1p is associated with a significantly shorter remission and survival in patients undergoing high-dose therapy and a single autologous transplant for myeloma

    Risk classification at diagnosis predicts post-HCT outcomes in intermediate-, adverse-risk, and KMT2A-rearranged AML.

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    Little is known about whether risk classification at diagnosis predicts post-hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. We evaluated 8709 AML patients from the CIBMTR database and, after selection and manual curation of cytogenetics data, 3779 patients in CR1 were included in the final analysis: 2384 with intermediate-risk, 969 with adverse-risk, and 426 with KMT2A-rearranged disease. An adjusted multivariable analysis compared to intermediate-risk patients detected an increased risk of relapse for KMT2A-rearranged and adverse-risk patients (HR 1.27, p = 0.01 and HR 1.71, p < 0.001, respectively). Leukemia-free survival (LFS) was similar for KMT2A and adverse-risk patients (HR 1.26, p = 0.002 and HR 1.47, p < 0.001), as was overall survival (OS) (HR 1.32, p < 0.001 and HR 1.45, p < 0.001). No differences in outcome could be detected when patients were stratified by KMT2A fusion partner. This is the largest study conducted to date on post-HCT outcomes in AML using manually curated cytogenetics for risk stratification. Our work demonstrates that risk classification at diagnosis remains predictive of post-HCT outcomes in AML. It also highlights the critical need to develop novel treatment strategies for patients with KMT2A rearrangements and adverse-risk disease

    Haploidentical vs. sibling, unrelated, or cord blood hematopoietic cell transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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    The role of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) using posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is being defined. We performed a retrospective, multivariable analysis comparing outcomes of HCT approaches by donor for adults with ALL in remission. The primary objective was to compare overall survival (OS) among haploidentical HCTs using PTCy and HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD), 8/8 HLAmatched unrelated donor (MUD), 7 /8 HLA-MUD, or umbilical cord blood (UCB) HCT. Comparing haploidentical HCT to MSD HCT, we found that OS, leukemia-free survival (LFS), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) were not different but chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was higher in MSD HCT. Compared with MUD HCT, OS, LFS, and relapse were not different, but MUD HCT had increased NRM (hazard ratio [HR], 1.42; P = .02), grade 3 to 4 aGVHD (HR, 1.59; P = .005), and cGVHD. Compared with 7/8 UD HCT, LFS and relapse were not different, but 7/8 UD HCT had worse OS (HR, 1.38; P = .01) and increased NRM (HR, 2.13; P <_ .001), grade 3 to 4 aGVHD (HR, 1.86; P = .003), and cGVHD (HR, 1.72; P <_ .001). Compared with UCB HCT, late OS, late LFS, relapse, and cGVHD were not different but UCB HCT had worse early OS (<_18 months; HR, 1.93; P < .001), worse early LFS (HR, 1.40; P = .007) and increased incidences of NRM (HR, 2.08; P < .001) and grade 3 to 4 aGVHD (HR, 1.97; P < .001). Haploidentical HCT using PTCy showed no difference in survival but less GVHD compared with traditional MSD and MUD HCT and is the preferred alternative donor HCT option for adults with ALL in complete remission
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