412 research outputs found

    Post-COVID-19 pulmonary complications among recovered COVID-19 patients: a cross-sectional study from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic has been linked to chronic pulmonary complications all over the world. Respiratory complications such as chronic cough, dyspnea, increased respiratory rate, and oxygen support demand are prevalent in recovered COVID-19 patients. These problems are long-term and have a negative impact on one’s quality of life. Patients must be evaluated for potential complications, and risk factors must be found. Some reports around the world explain the factors that contribute to the development of these complications. However, to the best of our understanding, no reports of post-COVID-19 complications have been reported from Ethiopia. Methods Facility based cross-sectional study was done among 405 participants selected by simple random sampling technique. Structured questionnaire which includes participants’ demographic, clinical and 3rd month visit characteristics was collected by Open Data Kit and exported to SPSS version 25.0 for analysis. Percentage with frequency and median with Interquartile range was used in descriptive statistics. The association between variables was analyzed with bivariate and multi variable logistic regression. A statistical significance was declared at p-value < 0.05, with 95% confidence interval. Results The median (Interquartile range) age of participants was 57.0 (43.0, 65.0) years, 63.2% were males. The prevalence of post-COVID-19 pulmonary complication in recovered COVID-19 patients was 14.1% (95% CI: 10.8%, 17.8%). After adjusting for possible confounders on multivariate analysis, older age [AOR = 0.227, 95% CI (0.08–0.66)] and consolidation [AOR = 0.497, 95% CI (0.258–0.957)] were shown to have significant association with post COVID-19 pulmonary complications. Conclusion The prevalence of post COVID-19 pulmonary complication was observed to be lower than other reports globally. Older age and the presence of consolidation on lung imaging were associated with those complications. Clinicians are recommended to consider assessing the lasting effects of the pandemic, beyond immediate care, and should also investigate the COVID-19 history in patients presenting with respiratory issues

    Additional file 4 of Mapping age- and sex-specific HIV prevalence in adults in sub-Saharan Africa, 2000–2018

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    Additional file 4: Supplemental results.1. README. 2. Prevalence range across districts. 3. Prevalence range between sexes. 4. Prevalence range between ages. 5. Age-specific district ranges

    Reproductive data.

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    Additive genetic and non-additive parameters for reproductive traits of Boer x Central Highland goats were estimated. Pedigree and performance records comprised of Central Highland and their crosses with Boer goats were collected from 2009 to 2018 in the Sirinka Agricultural Research Center sheep and goat breeding station. Least-squares means for genotypes were obtained using a general linear model procedure in SAS. To estimate crossbreeding parameters, breed additive, heterotic, and recombination effects were fitted as fixed covariates instead of genotypes. Variance, heritability, and repeatability estimates were estimated through the AI-REML algorithm using WOMBAT software. Genotype did not significantly (P>0.05) influence most of the reproductive traits studied except for gestation length. The additive effect for litter size at birth (LSB), total litter birth weight (LBW), total litter weaning weight (LWW), litter size at weaning (LSW), and gestation length (GL) was estimated to be -0.004 kid, 0.08 kg, -3.18 kg, -0.54 kid, and 3.69 days, respectively. The contribution of heterosis to LSB, LWW, and GL of crossbred goats was negative, while the estimates for LBW and LSW were positive. However, Boer goats’ heterosis effect and direct additive contribution to reproductive traits were insignificant (P>0.05) except for LSW. The recombination effect was negligible and not significant (P>0.05) for all traits examined. The direct heritability estimate for LSB, LWB, LWW, LSW, and GL were 0.050, 0.098, 0.086, 0.018, and 0.00, respectively. The repeatability estimates for LSB, LWB, LWW, LSW, and GL were 0.149, 0.116, 0.099, 0.086, and 0.061, respectively. The result indicates that improvement in reproductive traits would not be expected by crossing Boer with Central Highland goats. In addition, heritability estimates indicate that the improvement of reproductive traits through selection will be small, and the repeatability estimates indicate that multiple records have to be used to make a decision of culling or selection.</div

    Estimation of crossbreeding and genetic parameters for reproductive traits of Boer x Central Highland goats in Ethiopia.

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    Additive genetic and non-additive parameters for reproductive traits of Boer x Central Highland goats were estimated. Pedigree and performance records comprised of Central Highland and their crosses with Boer goats were collected from 2009 to 2018 in the Sirinka Agricultural Research Center sheep and goat breeding station. Least-squares means for genotypes were obtained using a general linear model procedure in SAS. To estimate crossbreeding parameters, breed additive, heterotic, and recombination effects were fitted as fixed covariates instead of genotypes. Variance, heritability, and repeatability estimates were estimated through the AI-REML algorithm using WOMBAT software. Genotype did not significantly (P>0.05) influence most of the reproductive traits studied except for gestation length. The additive effect for litter size at birth (LSB), total litter birth weight (LBW), total litter weaning weight (LWW), litter size at weaning (LSW), and gestation length (GL) was estimated to be -0.004 kid, 0.08 kg, -3.18 kg, -0.54 kid, and 3.69 days, respectively. The contribution of heterosis to LSB, LWW, and GL of crossbred goats was negative, while the estimates for LBW and LSW were positive. However, Boer goats' heterosis effect and direct additive contribution to reproductive traits were insignificant (P>0.05) except for LSW. The recombination effect was negligible and not significant (P>0.05) for all traits examined. The direct heritability estimate for LSB, LWB, LWW, LSW, and GL were 0.050, 0.098, 0.086, 0.018, and 0.00, respectively. The repeatability estimates for LSB, LWB, LWW, LSW, and GL were 0.149, 0.116, 0.099, 0.086, and 0.061, respectively. The result indicates that improvement in reproductive traits would not be expected by crossing Boer with Central Highland goats. In addition, heritability estimates indicate that the improvement of reproductive traits through selection will be small, and the repeatability estimates indicate that multiple records have to be used to make a decision of culling or selection

    Predicted performance of doe productive traits.

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    Additive genetic and non-additive parameters for reproductive traits of Boer x Central Highland goats were estimated. Pedigree and performance records comprised of Central Highland and their crosses with Boer goats were collected from 2009 to 2018 in the Sirinka Agricultural Research Center sheep and goat breeding station. Least-squares means for genotypes were obtained using a general linear model procedure in SAS. To estimate crossbreeding parameters, breed additive, heterotic, and recombination effects were fitted as fixed covariates instead of genotypes. Variance, heritability, and repeatability estimates were estimated through the AI-REML algorithm using WOMBAT software. Genotype did not significantly (P>0.05) influence most of the reproductive traits studied except for gestation length. The additive effect for litter size at birth (LSB), total litter birth weight (LBW), total litter weaning weight (LWW), litter size at weaning (LSW), and gestation length (GL) was estimated to be -0.004 kid, 0.08 kg, -3.18 kg, -0.54 kid, and 3.69 days, respectively. The contribution of heterosis to LSB, LWW, and GL of crossbred goats was negative, while the estimates for LBW and LSW were positive. However, Boer goats’ heterosis effect and direct additive contribution to reproductive traits were insignificant (P>0.05) except for LSW. The recombination effect was negligible and not significant (P>0.05) for all traits examined. The direct heritability estimate for LSB, LWB, LWW, LSW, and GL were 0.050, 0.098, 0.086, 0.018, and 0.00, respectively. The repeatability estimates for LSB, LWB, LWW, LSW, and GL were 0.149, 0.116, 0.099, 0.086, and 0.061, respectively. The result indicates that improvement in reproductive traits would not be expected by crossing Boer with Central Highland goats. In addition, heritability estimates indicate that the improvement of reproductive traits through selection will be small, and the repeatability estimates indicate that multiple records have to be used to make a decision of culling or selection.</div

    Concordance between Ov16 rapid diagnostic test(RDT) and Ov16 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of onchocerciasis in areas of contrasting endemicity in cameroon

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    The diagnosis of onchocerciasis in endemic areas has been demanding given the need to replace the invasive skin snip method with a more sensitive and specific rapid point-of-contact tool. Filarial antigen detection tests are better alternative methods in diagnosing Onchocercal infections, as they detect infections and could be used to monitor transmission in endemic areas following mass drug administration. With the shift in paradigme from control to elimination, a rapid point- of-contact tool is required to support elimination programs. This was a cross-sectional, community-based study conducted in 50 villages selected from six health districts using a systematic sampling technique. Individuals ≥17 years who had lived in the community for a duration of 5 years and above provided blood specimens for IgG4 antibodies testing against O. volvulus antigens. Data were analyzed using SPSS v.20 and expectation maximization to classify optical densities for positive and negative samples from ELISA results. The kappa statistics was used to measure the level of agreement between the two tests. In a total of 5001 participants which were recruited for the study, 4416 (88.3%) participant samples passed the plate quality control criteria and were considered for the test comparison analysis. Out of the 4416 participants, 292 (6.6%) tested positive with Ov16 RDT and 310 (7.0%) with Ov16 ELISA. All those who tested positive with the rapid test agreed positive with ELISA. The overall percentage agreement was 99.2%, the Kappa score of 0.936. The results obtained indicate an excellent agreement between ELISA and RDT as measured by kappa (0.936) which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Our experience with the Ov16 ELISA biplex rapid test was favorable. However, the Ov16 RDT test may be more appropriate to use in remote areas for the point diagnosis of onchocerciasis in view towards achieving elimination in Africa

    Analysis of genetic parameters and genetic trends for early growth and reproductive traits of Doyogena sheep managed under community-based breeding program

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    This study aims to estimate genetic parameters and genetic trends for early growth and reproductive traits of Doyogena sheep. Data used in the study were collected over 6 years (2013–2018). Studied traits were birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), 6-month weight (SMWT), average daily gains from birth to weaning (ADG0-3), average daily gains from weaning to 6-month age (ADG3-6), average daily gain from birth to 6-month age (ADG0- 6), litter size (LS), lambing interval (LI), age at first lambing (AFL), and annual reproductive rate (ARR). (Co) variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood (REML). The analyses were carried out using WOMBAT program. Univariate analysis was applied to estimate genetic parameters. Six different animal models were fitted by including or excluding maternal effects. The direct heritability estimates for BWT, WWT, SMWT, ADG0-3, ADG3-6 and ADG0-6 were 0.33 0.06, 0.31 0.06, 0.14 0.06, 0.13 0.04, 0.11 0.07, and 0.02 0.05 respectively. Direct heritability for LS, LI, and AFL were 0.28 0.12, 0.20 0.5, and 0.001 0.3, respectively. The maternal heritability estimates for BWT, WWT, and LS were 0.24 0.12, 0.60 0.07, and 0.24 0.08, respectively. The genetic correlation between BWT with WWT and BWT with SMWT were 0.21 0.07 and 0.21 0.09, respectively. Genetic progress for most of the studied traits has shown promising improvements. Thus, continuation of selection, therefore, suggested for more improvements in the performance of Doyogena sheep. Direct heritability estimates decrease as lamb age increases and selection based on earlier body weight will be more efficient
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